Mediterranean pine forests with endemic Mesogean pines
|EU Habitats Directive||Annex I habitat type (code 9540)|
|EU conservation status by biogeographical region||Continental - Unfavourable-Bad|
|Mediterranean - Unfavourable-Inadequate|
|Habitat type||Not priority|
|Natura 2000 sites||470 are designated for this habitat type|
Mediterranean and thermo-Atlantic woods of thermophilous pines, mostly appearing as substitution or paraclimactic stages of forests of the Quercetalia ilicis or Ceratonio-Rhamnetalia. Long-established plantations of these pines, within their natural area of occurrence, and with an undergrowth basically similar to that of paraclimactic formations, are included.
Pal. 42.81 Maritime pine forests: Forests and plantations of Pinus pinaster ssp. atlantica of south-western France and the western Iberian peninsula.
Pal. 42.82 Mesogean pine forests: Forests of Pinus pinaster ssp. pinaster (=Pinus mesogeensis) of the western Mediterranean, mostly in siliceous meso-Mediterranean, upper meso-Mediterranean and supra-Mediterranean situations of Spain, Corsica, southeastern France, northwestern Italy, Sardinia and Pantelleria.
Pal. 42.821 Iberian mesogean pine forests: Pinus pinaster forests of the Iberian peninsula, appearing mostly as substitution communities of Quercus rotundifolia, Quercus pyrenaica or, locally, Quercus suber, Quercus faginea woodlands.
Pal. 42.822 Corbières mesogean pine forests: Isolated Pinus pinaster - dominated woods of the Corbières.
Pal. 42.823 Franco-Italian mesogean pine forests: Pinus pinaster forests of siliceous lower meso-Mediterranean areas of Provence, of marls and limestones of the upper meso-Mediterranean level of the Maritime Alps and the Ligurian Alps, and of mostly siliceous or clayey soils of the hills of Liguria and Tuscany.
Pal. 42.824 Corsican mesogean pine forests: Pinetum pinastri, Erico-Arbutetum p., Galio-Pinetum p.
Pinus pinaster-dominated forests of the meso- and supra-Mediterranean levels of Corsica, mostly on granitic substrates; they are very developed, accompanied by a maquis-like understory, in the meso-Mediterranean zone, mostly at its upper tier; they occur locally within the supra-Mediterranean zone, on adrets and at lower altitudes, as facies of laricio pine forests.
Pal. 42.825 Sardinian mesogean pine forests: Pinus pinaster formations on granitic substrates of northern Sardinia, with Arbutus unedo, Quercus ilex, Rosmarinus officinalis, Erica arborea, Genista corsica, Lavandula stoechas, Rubia peregrina, Calicotome spinosa, Pistacia lentiscus, Teucrium marum.
Pal. 42.826 Pantellerian mesogean pine forests: Pinus pinaster woods of Pantelleria.
Pal. 42.83 Stone pine forests: Mediterranean forests and old naturalised plantations of Pinus pinea.
Pal. 42.831 Iberian stone pine forests: Pinus pinea forests of the Iberian peninsula, where they reach their greatest development.
Pal. 42.832 Balearic stone pine woods: Pinus pinea formations of the Balearic Islands, native only on Ibiza and Formentera.
Pal. 42.833 Provence stone pine woods: Pinus pinea formations of Provence, possibly spontaneous on coastal sands and in the Maures area.
Pal. 42.834 Corsican stone pine woods: Pinus pinea formations of the littoral of Corsica, some of which may be of natural origin, in particular on old dunes of the east coast.
Pal. 42.835 Sardinian stone pine forests: Pinus pinea formations of Sardinia.
Pal. 42.836 Sicilian stone pine forests: Pinus pinea formations of the Monti Peloritani, northwestern Sicily, of probable native origin.
Pal. 42.837 Peninsular Italian stone pine forests: Large, ancient, Pinus pinea plantations of the Tyrennian, and locally, Adriatic coasts of the Italian peninsula, in Liguria, Toscany, Latium, Campania, Emilia-Romana (Ravenna) and Friuli-Venetia Giulia (Grado).
Pal. 42.838 Greek stone pine forests: Pinus pinea woods of the littoral and coastal hills of the Peloponnese, Chalcidice, Crete and Aegean islands, rather local but probably in part, at least, spontaneous; a splendid example exists, in particular, on Skiathos.
Pal. 42.84 Aleppo pine forests: Woods of Pinus halepensis, a frequent colonist of thermo- and calcicolous meso-Mediterranean scrubs.
Pal. 42.841 Iberian Aleppo pine forests: Pinus halepensis forests of Spain, considered native for at least two-thirds of their considerable expanse; they are mostly restricted to eastern regions on the Mediterranean slope of the Catalonian mountains, the Maestrazgo, the pre-Baetic ranges of the upper Guadalquivir basin, the southern Andalusian mountains; they penetrate farther inland in the Ebro basin and around the headwaters of the Tagus and Guadalquivir systems.
Pal. 42.842 Balearic Aleppo pine forests: Pinus halepensis formations of the Balearics, present and probably native on all the major islands.
Pal. 42.843 Provenço-Ligurian Aleppo pine forests: Mostly lower meso-Mediterranean Pinus halepensis forests of Provence and of the lower slopes and coastlines of the Maritime and Ligurian Alps, extensive and undoubtedly native.
Pal. 42.844 Corsican Aleppo pine woods: Rare and local Pinus halepensis woods of the Corsican coasts, some, at least, possibly natural.
Pal. 42.845 Sardinian Aleppo pine woods: Pinus halepensis formations of Sardinia, where certainly native woods occur on Isola di San Pietro and the Sulcis coast of Iglesiente.
Pal. 42.846 Sicilian Aleppo pine woods: Pinus halepensis formations of Sicily and peripheral islands (Egadi, Lampedusa, Pantelleria).
Pal. 42.847 Peninsular Italian Aleppo pine forests: Pinus halepensis formations of the Italian peninsula; extensive, probably at least partially native ones are individualised in the subdivisions below.
Pal. 42.848 Greek Aleppo pine forests: Pinus halepensis formations of Greece, where the species is relatively widespread, particularly in Attica, Thessaly, the coasts of the Peloponnese and of central continental Greece, the Ionian islands, Chalcidici, the northern Sporades, Euboea and Skiros.
Pal. 42.85 Aegean pine forests: Pinus brutia forests of Crete and eastern Aegean islands. Eastern vicariants of Aleppo pine forests (42.84), they comprise, however, taller, more luxuriant, and often extensive, formations.
Pal. 42.851 Aegean pine forests of Crete: Pinus brutia-dominated forests of Crete and its satellite islands Gavdos and Gaidaronisi, pure or mixed with Cupressus sempervirens; they are widespread in particular in the White Mountains, the Psiloriti range, the Dikti range and, locally, in the Sitia mountains and the Asterousia mountains.
Pal. 42.852 Aegean pine forests of Lesbos: Extensive Pinus brutia forests of Lesbos, occupying Mount Olympus and surrounding hills in the southeastern quadrant of the island, as well as parts of the Kuratsonas range in the northwest.
Pal. 42.853 Aegean pine forests of Samos: Pinus brutia forests covering large expanses of Samos, in particular in the Ambelos range, the Kerki mountains, the southern hills and the northeastern peninsula.
Pal. 42.854 Aegean pine woods of Chios: Remnant forests of Chios with a composition and stratification similar to those of the forests of Samos.
Pal. 42.855 Aegean pine forests of Thasos: Broad Pinus brutia belt on the lower reaches of Thasos, up to about 400 to 500 metres, mixed with Pinus pallasiana in the higher areas.
Pal. 42.856 Aegean pine woods of Samothrace: Mostly sparse Pinus brutia formations of the lowlands of Samothrace.
Pal. 42.857 Aegean pine forests of Rhodes: Remnant Pinus brutia forests of Rhodes, still represented by some relatively natural formations with rich scrub undergrowth.
Pal. 42.858 Aegean pine forests of Karpathos: Fairly extensive Pinus brutia forests of Karpathos, distributed, in particular, in the northern coastal area, the southern interior and the middle elevation of Kali Limni.
Pal. 42.859 Aegean pine forests of the Dodecanese: Pinus brutia formations of the islands of Simi, Kos, Leros and Ikaria.
EU conservation status
Conservation status assesses every six years and for each biogeographical region the condition of habitats and species compared to the favourable status as described in the Habitats Directive. The map shows the 2007-2012 assessments as reported by EU Member State. Assessments are further detailed in the summary document available behind the link below.
Species mentioned in habitat description
|Species scientific name||English common name||Species group|
|Arbutus unedo||Flowering Plants|
|Calicotome spinosa||Flowering Plants|
|Comperia comperiana||Flowering Plants|
|Erica arborea||Flowering Plants|
|Genista corsica||Flowering Plants|
|Lavandula stoechas||Flowering Plants|
|Pistacia lentiscus||Flowering Plants|
|Quercus faginea||Flowering Plants|
|Quercus ilex||Flowering Plants|
|Quercus pyrenaica||Flowering Plants|
|Quercus rotundifolia||Flowering Plants|
|Quercus suber||Flowering Plants|
|Rosmarinus officinalis||Flowering Plants|
|Rubia peregrina||Flowering Plants|
|Sitta krueperi||Krüper's Nuthatch||Birds|
|Teucrium marum||Flowering Plants|
Natura 2000 sites
Protected in the following Natura 2000 sites
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Mentioned in the following international legal instruments and agreements
Relation to habitat classifications
|Classification||Code||Habitat type name||Relationship type|
|EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711||G3.7||Lowland to montane mediterranean Pinus woodland (excluding Pinus nigra)||narrower|
|EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711||G3.71||Maritime Pinus pinaster ssp. atlantica forests||wider|
|EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711||G3.75||Pinus brutia forests||wider|
|EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711||G3.74||Pinus halepensis forests||wider|
|EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711||G3.72||Pinus pinaster ssp. pinaster (Pinus mesogeensis) forests||wider|
|EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711||G3.73||Pinus pinea forests||wider|