Inland sand and rock with open vegetation

English name: Inland sand and rock with open vegetation

Description (English)

Open, thermophile vegetation of sands or rock debris in the nemoral zone and locally, in boreal or submediterranean lowland to montane areas of Europe. Included are open grasslands on strongly to slightly calcareous inland sands, and vegetation formed mostly by annuals and succulents or semisucculents on decomposed rock surfaces of edges, ledges or knolls, with calcareous or siliceous soils.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code E1.1
Relation to Annex I habitat types (EU Habitats Directive)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Name Definition Other names Reference
Asplenio septentrionalis-Festucion pallentis Zólyomi 1936 corr. 1966 Xerophilous rocky grasslands on shallow siliceous soils of southern Central Europe Asplenio-Festucion glaucae Zólyomi 1936; Asplenio-Festucion pallentis Zólyomi 1936 corr. Soó 1980; Asplenion serpentini Soó 1959; Aspplenion serpentini (forsteri) Soó 1969 Schaminee et al, 2012
Alyssion bertolonii E. Pignatti et Pignatti 1977 Meso-supramediterranean ultramafic garrigues of northern Tuscany, Liguria and Northern Apennines Euphorbion ligusticae Nowak 1987 Schaminee et al, 2012
Sileno conicae-Cerastion semidecandri Korneck 1974 Steppic sandy grasslands on stablised inland sand dunes of Central Europe Androsaco septentrionali-Cerastion semidecandri Glowacki 1988 Schaminee et al, 2012
Saturejion montanae Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974 Dry montane steppic grasslands on calcareous substrates of northern Balkan Peninsula Saturejion kitaibelii N. Randelovic et V. Randelovic in Milosavljevic et al. 2008 Schaminee et al, 2012
Sedo-Thymion De Molenaar 1976 Open sub-thermophilous grassy swards and low scrub on skeletal shallow soils on siliceous substrates of Greenland Schaminee et al, 2012
Sedion micrantho-sediformis Rivas-Mart., P. Sánchez et Alcaraz ex P. Sánchez et Alcaraz 1993 Communities of calcareous outcrops in mesomediterranean southwestern Iberia Sedion micranthi (O. de Bolòs 1981) De la Torre et al. 1996; Sedion micrantho-sediformis Rivas-Mart., P. Sánchez et Alcaraz in Alcaraz et al. 1991 Schaminee et al, 2012
Seslerion rigidae Zólyomi 1936 Dealpine xerophilous grasslands on calcareous substrates of Eastern Carpathians Schaminee et al, 2012
Polygonion albanicae Ritter-Studnicka 1970 Ultramafic xeric rocky grasslands of Bosnia Potentillion visianii Ritter-Studnicka 1970 Schaminee et al, 2012
Festucion beckeri Vicherek 1972 Pontic continental sandy steppes Trifolio arvensis-Sedion Shevchyk et Polishko 2000 Schaminee et al, 2012
Avenulo adsurgentis-Festucion pallentis Mucina in Mucina et Kolbek 1993 Xerophilous rocky grasslands on ultramafic substrates of Eastern Alps Asplenio cuneifolii-Festucion glaucae Ernst 1974 Schaminee et al, 2012
Alyssion heldreichii Bergmeier et al. 2009 Ultramafic xeric rocky grasslands of northern Hellas and southern Macedonia Schaminee et al, 2012
Chrysopogono-Saturejion subspicatae Horvat et Horvatic 1934 Praealpic-Illyrian steppic pastures on shallow calcareous soils Centaureion dichroanthae Pignatti 1952; Chrysopogono-Koelerion splendentis Horvatic 1973; Festucion illyricae (Horvat 1962) Trinajstic 2000; Saturejion subspicatae Horvat 1962; Saturejion subspicatae Horvat ex Horvatic 1973; Saturejion subspicatae Horvatic 1975; Saturejo subspicatae-Caricion humilis (Horvat 1962) Trinajstic 1999; Peucadanion neumeyeri (Ritter-Studnicka 1967) Lakušic 1978; Centaureion dichroanthae Pignatti 1953; Chrysopogono grylli-Saturejion subspicatae Horvat et Horvatic in Horvat et al. 1974 Schaminee et al, 2012
Diantho lumnitzeri-Seslerion (Soó 1971) Chytrý et Mucina in Mucina et Kolbek 1993 Dealpine xerophilous grasslands on calcareous substrates of southeastern Central Europe Asplenio cuneifolii-Armerion serpentini Kolbek et al. 1983 Schaminee et al, 2012
Festucion vaginatae Soó 1929 Pannonian fescue sandy steppes Festucion vaginatae Soó 1938; Festucion vaginatae Soó 1968; Festucion vaginatae Soó von Bere 1940; Festucion vaginatae basiphilum et neutrophilum Šmarda 1953; Eu-Festucion vaginatae Soó 1980 Schaminee et al, 2012
Armerion elongatae Pötsch 1962 Closed meso-xerophytic swards on slightly acidic to slightly alkaline sandy soils in lowlands of subcontinental Europe Armerion elongatae Krausch 1962; Plantagini lanceolatae-Festucion brevipilae Passarge 1964 corr. Kratzert et Dengler 1999; Plantagini lanceolatae-Festucion ovinae Passarge 1964; Vicio lathyroidis-Potentillion argenteae Brzeg in Brzeg et Wojterska 1996; Armerion elongatae Krausch 1959; Plantagini-Festucion trachyphyllae Passarge 1964 nom. corr. propos. Schaminee et al, 2012
Centaureo carbonatae-Koelerion talievii Romashchenko et al. 1996 Dry steppe grasslands on chernozem soils on south-facing slopes of Central Russian Highland Schaminee et al, 2012
Sedo-Scleranthion Br.-Bl. 1950 Pioneer vegetation on acidic shallow soils on rocky outcrops on siliceous rocks of Alpic valleys Rumici acetosellae-Scleranthion perennis de Foucault 1999; Sedo-Scleranthion Br.-Bl. 1949; Sempervivo-Sedion (Br.-Bl. 1955) T. Müller 1961; Rumici acetosellae-Scleranthion perennis de Foucault 2001; Sedo-Scleranthion Br.-Bl. 1955 Schaminee et al, 2012
Koelerion glaucae Volk 1931 Steppic grasslands on stabilised inland sand dunes on fluvioglacial deposits of Central and Eastern Europe Helichrysion arenarii Tx. 1951 Schaminee et al, 2012
Alysso-Sedion Oberd. et T. Müller in T. Müller 1961 Thermophilous stonecrop communities of weathered calcareous rocks Acino arvensis-Arenario serpyllifoliae de Foucault 1989; Alysso-Veronicion praecocis Passarge 1977; Gageo bohemicae-Sedion albi (Oberd. 1957) de Foucault 1999; Sedo albi-Paronychion serpyllifoliae Tx. et Oberd. 1954; Sedo-Teucrion Doing 1963; Valerianello-Veronicion arvensis Passarge 1996; Allio sphaerocephali-Sedion albi (Oberd. et T. Müller in T. Müller 1961) de Foucault 1999; Sedo albi-Poion compressae (Oberd. et T. Müller in T. Müller 1961) de Foucault 1999 Schaminee et al, 2012
Tortello tortuosae-Sedion albi Hallberg ex Dengler et Löbel 2006 Xeric basiphilous grasslands of shallow soils of southern Baltic alvars Anthyllido-Artemision campestris Sunding in Marker 1969; Festucion alvarense Albertson 1950; Helianthemo-Cetrarion (Br.-Bl. 1963) Krahulec et al. 1986; Tortello-Sedion Hallberg 1971; Helianthemo-Globularion Br.-Bl. 1963 nom. dubium p.p. Schaminee et al, 2012
Centaureo-Bromion fibrosi Blecic et al. 1969 Ultramafic xeric rocky grasslands of Kosovo, Serbia, northern Macedonia and Albania Schaminee et al, 2012
Chrysopogono-Festucion dalmaticae Borhidi 1996 Xerophilous rocky steppic grasslands on calcareous substrates of southernmost montainous fringes of Pannonian Basin Koelerio-Festucion dalmaticae N. Randelovic et Ružic 1983; Chrysopogono-Festucion pseudodalmaticae Coldea et Sarbu in Coldea 2012 Schaminee et al, 2012
Xero-Bromion erecti Zoller 1954 Xerophytic, basiphilous open grasslands of southwestern Central Europe and France Seslerio-Xerobromion (Oberd. 1957) Pott 1995; Seslerio-Xerobromion (Oberd. 1957) Richards 1975; Xerobromion (Br.-Bl. et Moor 1938) Moravec in Holub et al. 1967 Schaminee et al, 2012
Thero-Airion Tx. ex Oberd. 1957 Pioneer vegetation on acidic shallow soils of winter-mild atlantic and sub-boreal regions of Europe and Madeira Airion caryophylleo-praecocis Rivas-Mart. 1978; Thero-Airion Tx. 1951; Thero-Trifolion Doing 1974; Tuberario guttatae-Airion praecocis de Foucault 1999; Tuberario guttatae-Airion praecocis de Foucault 2001 Schaminee et al, 2012
Sedo-Cerastion arvensis Sissingh et Tideman 1960 Closed meso-xerophytic swards on acidic to neutral sandy soils in lowlands of atlantic to subatlantic regions of Europe Carici arenariae-Festucion filiformis de Foucault 1993; Hieracio-Festucion tenuifoliae Doing 1963; Sedo-Koelerion gracilis Doing 1963; Polygalo vulgaris-Koelerion macranthae Weeda et al. in Schaminée et al. 1996; Carici arenariae-Festucion filiformis de Foucault 1994; Pilosello-Festucion tenuifoliae Doing 1974 (orig. form) Schaminee et al, 2012
Sedo albi-Veronicion dillenii Korneck 1974 Thermophilous therophyte- and geophyte-rich vegetation on stable siliceous rubble of Central Europe Rumici-Veronicion dillenii Passarge 1977; Spergulo pentandrae-Veronicion dillenii de Foucault 1999; Veronicion dillenii Oberd. 1957; Spergulo pentandrae-Veronicion dillenii de Foucault 2001 Schaminee et al, 2012
Saturejo-Thymion Micevski 1971 Dry submediterranean montane steppic grasslands on calcareous substrates of southern Balkan Peninsula Saturejo-Thymion Micevski 1970 Schaminee et al, 2012
Artemisio hololeucae-Hyssopion cretacei Romashchenko et al. 1996 Dry rocky steppic grasslands and dwarf scrub on shallow rendzina soils over chalk outcrops in southern regions of Central Russian Uplands Sileno supinae-Artemision hololeucae Didukh 1989 Schaminee et al, 2012
Alysso-Festucion pallentis Moravec in Holub et al. 1967 Xerophilous rocky grasslands on shallow soils over mineral-rich siliceous and Silurian limestone rocks of western Central Europe Diantho gratianopolitani-Melicion ciliatae Royer 1991; Polytricho piliferi-Festucion cinereae Schubert 1974; Polytricho piliferi-Festucion pallentis Schubert 1974 corr. Schubert et al. 2001; Teucrio botryos-Melicion ciliatae (Korneck 1974) Royer 1987; Helianthemo cani-Festucion pallentis Kolbek in Moravec et al. 1983 Schaminee et al, 2012
Scorzonerion villosae Horvatic 1963 Illyrian-Dinaric submediterranean xeric pasture on deep decalcified terra rossa soils and argillaceous flysch substrates Hypochoeridion maculatae Horvatic 1973; Hypochoeridion maculatae Horvatic 1975; Hypochoeridion maculatae Horvatic ex Terzi 2011; Hypochoeridion maculatae Horvatic in Royer 1991; Scorzonerion villosae Horvatic 1949; Scorzonerion villosae Horvatic 1957 Schaminee et al, 2012
Seslerio nitidae-Caricion macrolepidis Ubaldi 1997 Submediterranean upper-montane xeric calcareous grasslands on shallow soils of Central and Southern Apennines Knautio calycinae-Bromion caprini Ubaldi 2008; Knautio calycinae-Bromion caprini Ubaldi 2011 Schaminee et al, 2012
Euphorbio cretophilae-Thymion cretacei Didukh 1989 Dry rocky steppic grasslands and dwarf scrub on chalk outcrops of southern regions of of Siverskii Donets river basin Schaminee et al, 2012
Bassio laniflorae-Bromion tectorum Borhidi 1996 nom. conserv. propos. Pannonian pioneer steppic grasslands on base-rich sands Festuco-Mollugion Borza 1963; Bromion tectorum Soó ex Felföldy 1942 nom. ambig. propos.; Bromion tectorum Soó von Bere 1940 Schaminee et al, 2012
Armerion junceae Br.-Bl. ex Br.-Bl. et al. 1952 Meso-xerophytic closed tussock grasslands on dolomite sands of southern France Armerion girardii Loisel 1971; Armerion girardii Br.-Bl. 1931 corr. Julve 1993; Armerion juncei Br.-Bl. 1931 (orig. form) Schaminee et al, 2012
Corynephorion canescentis Klika 1931 Silicicolous tussock perennial open grasslands of atlantic and subatlantic regions of northwestern and Central Europe Caricion arenariae Doing 1974; Corynephorion Br.-Bl. et de Leeuw 1926; Dicrano-Cladinion Doing 1963; Filagini-Corynephorion Passarge 1960; Miboro minimae-Corynephorion canescentis Loiseau et Felzines 2007; Polytricho-Cornicularion Doing 1974; Sedo micranthi-Corynephorion canescentis Loiseau et Felzines 2007; Spergulo-Corynephorion (Klika 1931) Passarge 1960 Schaminee et al, 2012
Aethionemion saxatilis Bergmeier et al. 2009 Thermophilous communities of calcareous and metalliferous rock outcrops of northern Hellas Schaminee et al, 2012
Scabioso-Trifolion dalmatici Horvatic et N. Randelovic in N. Randelovic 1977 Silicicolous therophyte swards of submediterranean-continental Serbia Scabioso-Trifolion dalmatici Horvatic et N. Randelovic 1973; Scabioso-Trifolion dalmatici Horvatic et N. Randelovic in N. Randelovic 1975; Scabioso-Trifolion dalmatici N. Randelovic et Horvatic 1974 Schaminee et al, 2012
Festuco-Bromion Barbero et Loisel 1971 Mesophytic to xerophytic basiphilous open grasslands of submediterranean regions of Provence and Liguria Bothriochloo ischaemi-Bromion erecti Ubaldi 1997 Schaminee et al, 2012
Armerio-Potentillion Micevski 1978 Dry steppic grasslands on deep soils over siliceous bedrocks in montane belt of Macedonia Schaminee et al, 2012
Veronico-Poion glaucae Nordhagen 1943 Open sub-thermophilous grasslands on sandy and skeletal shallow soils on siliceous substrates of Scandinavia Veronico-Poion alpinae Sunding 1978; Veronico-Poion glaucae Nordhagen 1942 Schaminee et al, 2012
Diantho pinifolii-Jasionion heldreichii Bergmeier et al. 2009 Pioneer herb-rich vegetation on acidic shallow soils on rocky outcrops and stabilised ultramafic rubble of northern Hellas Schaminee et al, 2012
Sedion anglici Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et Tx. 1952 Pioneer vegetation on acidic shallow soils on rocky outcrops on siliceous rocks of atlantic region of Europe Hyperico linarifolii-Sedion reflexi de Foucault 1999; Hyperico linarifolii-Sedion reflexi de Foucault in Julve 1993; Hyperico linarifolii-Sedion rupestris de Foucault 1999; Hyperico linarifolii-Sedion rupestris de Foucault 2001 Schaminee et al, 2012
Hippocrepido glaucae-Stipion austroitalicae Forte et Terzi in Forte et al. 2005 Submediterranean xeric pasture on skeletal calcareous soils of Apulia (southern Italy) Schaminee et al, 2012
Hyperico perforati-Scleranthion perennis Moravec 1967 Boreo-montane cilicicolous meso-xerophytic closed swards on shallow skeletal soils of Central Europe, British Isles and Fennoscandia Koelerio-Phleion phleoidis Korneck 1974; Poo compressae-Rumicion acetosellae Dudikh et Kontar 1998; Thymo pulegioidis-Sedion sexangulare Didukh et Kontar 1998 Schaminee et al, 2012
Bromo pannonici-Festucion csikhegyensis Zólyomi 1966 corr. Mucina hoc loco Xerophilous rocky grasslands on calcareous substrates of northern fringes of Pannonian Basin Festucion pallentis (Klika 1931) Korneck 1974; Seslerio-Festucion glaucae Klika 1931 nom. ambig. propos.; Seslerio-Festucion pallentis Klika 1931 corr. Zólyomi 1966 nom. ambig. propos.; Bromo pannonici-Festucion csikhegyensis Zólyomi 1966 nom. conserv. propos.; Seslerio-Festucion duriusculae Klika 1931 nom. mut. propos. et nom. ambig. propos. Schaminee et al, 2012
Sedion pyrenaici Tx. in Rivas-Mart. et al. 2011 Pioneer vegetation on acidic shallow soils on rocky outcrops on siliceous rocks of Pyrenees and western Iberia Sedion pyrenaici Tx. ex Rivas-Mart. et al. 1984; Sedion pyrenaici Tx. in Tx. et Oberd. 1958; Sedion pyrenaici Tx. 1954 Schaminee et al, 2012
Cytiso spinescentis-Bromion erecti Bonin 1978 Submediterranean xeric calcareous open grasslands of submontane and lower montane belts of Central and Southern Apennines Crepido lacerae-Phleion ambigui Biondi et Blasi 1982; Phleo ambigui-Bromion erecti Biondi et al. 1995; Violo pseudogracilis-Bromopsion caprinae Terzi 2011; Cytiso spinescentis-Bromion caprini Bonin in Barbero et Bonin 1969; Phleo ambigui-Bromion erecti Biondi et al. ex Biondi et Galdenzi 2012; Siderition italicae Ubaldi 2011 Schaminee et al, 2012
Valerianion tuberosae Guinochet 1975 Communities of calcareus shallow rubble soils in supramediterranean belt of Prealps of southern France Schaminee et al, 2012
Galio campanulatae-Poion versicoloris Kukovitsa et al. ex Didukh et Mucina in Mucina et al. 2013 Dry rocky steppic grasslands on gypsum and calcareous outcrops of western Podolia Galio campanulatae-Poion versicoloris Kukovitsa et al. 1994 Schaminee et al, 2012

Species mentioned in habitat description

Not available

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 200112 34.1 Middle European pioneer swards same
CORINE Land Cover 3.2.1. Natural grassland n/a
Phase 1 habitat classification (UK) 1993 B11 Acid grassland: unimproved not defined
Phase 1 habitat classification (UK) 1993 B12 Acid grassland: semi-improved not defined
Biodiversity Broad Habitat Classification (UK) 8 Acid grassland wider
Biodiversity Action Plan Priority Habitats (UK) 14 Lowland dry acid grassland overlap
Milieux Naturels de Suisse 1998 4.1 Dalles rocheuses et lapiez same
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 E1.1 Inland sand and rock with open vegetation same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 E1.1 Open thermophile pioneer vegetation of sandy or detritic ground same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 E1.1 Open thermophile pioneer vegetation of sandy or detritic ground same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 E1.1 Open thermophile pioneer vegetation of sandy or detritic ground same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 E1.1 Open thermophile grasslands of sandy or detritic ground same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199712 E1.3 Open thermophile grasslands of sandy or detritic ground same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 199905 34.1 Middle European pioneer swards same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1997 34.1 Middle European pioneer swards same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1996 34.1   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1993 34.1   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1991 34.1   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1989 34.1   same
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