Acid alpine and subalpine grassland

English name: Acid alpine and subalpine grassland

Description (English)

Alpine and subalpine grasslands developed over crystalline rocks and other lime-deficient substrates or on decalcified soils of mountains. On boreal mountains, Carex bigelowii and Juncus trifidus often dominate. The acid alpine grasslands of central Europe are more mixed, with Armeria alpina, Armeria alliacea (Armeria montana), Euphrasia minima, Gentiana alpina, Geum montanum, Juncus trifidus, Lychnis alpina, Pedicularis pyrenaica, Phyteuma hemisphaericum, Pulsatilla alpina ssp. sulphurea, Ranunculus pyrenaeus, Sempervivum montanum, Botrychium lunaria.

Source:
EUNIS habitat classification
Interpretation Manual of the habitats targeted by Resolution No. 4

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code E4.3
Bern Convention Resolution 4 habitat type (used for designation of Emerald sites)
Relation to Annex I habitat types (EU Habitats Directive)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Name Definition Other names Reference
Equiseto-Galion borealis Tx. in Tx. et Böttcher 1969 Slightly chionophilous grasslands on base-rich volcanic soils of Iceland Schaminee et al, 2012
Ranunculo pollinensis-Nardion strictae Bonin 1972 Mat-grass chionophilous swards at high altidues of the Central and Southern Apennines Ranunculo sartotini-Nardion strictae Bonin 1978 Schaminee et al, 2012
Agrostion schraderanae Grabherr 1993 Open grasslands in disturbed avalanches tracks in subalpine and alpine belts of Eastern Alps Schaminee et al, 2012
Trisetion fusci Krajina 1933 Tall-herb rich grasslands of alluvial acidic substrates of alpine streams of Carpathians Deschampsion caespitosae Borza 1934; Phleo alpini-Deschampsion caespitosae Csurös et al. 1985 Schaminee et al, 2012
Potentillo-Polygonion vivipari Nordhagen ex Dierßen 1992 Pastures on poor to moderate rich soils in montane belt of Scandinavia Nardo-Agrostion capillaris Nordhagen 1936; Nardo-Agrostion capillaris Nordhagen 1943; Potentillo-Polygonion vivipari Nordhagen 1936 Schaminee et al, 2012
Festucion macratherae Avena et Bruno 1975 corr. Petriccione et Persia 1995 Tussock oligotrophic grasslands on decalcified deep soils at high altitudes of Central Apennines Caricion kitaibelianae Migliaccio 1970; Festucion violaceae Avena et Bruno 1975 Schaminee et al, 2012
Nardion strictae Br.-Bl. 1926 Mat-grass chionophilous swards of subalpine and alpine belts of Alps, Carpathians and Northern Apennines Campanulo barbatae-Potentillion aureae de Foucault 1994; Diphasiastro-Nardion (Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et Jenny 1926) Ellenberg 1978; Eu-Nardion Oberd. 1949; Galio saxatilis-Potentillion aureae de Foucault 1994; Nardion strictae alpinum Borza 1943; Nardion strictae alpinum Puscaru et al. 1956; Nardo-Trifolion alpini Preising 1949; Eu-Nardion Oberd. 1950; Nardion Luquet 1933 Schaminee et al, 2012
Festucion woronowii Tsepkova 1987 Alpine acidophilous species-rich grasslands of Caucasus Anemonion speciosae Minaeva 1987; Hedysaro caucasicae–Geranion gymnocauli Onipchenko 2002; Violo altaicae–Festucion variae Onipchenko 2002 Schaminee et al, 2012
Anemonastro sibirici-Festucion ovinae Chytrý et al. 1993 Moderately chionophilous silicicolous alpine grasslands of southern Siberian mountains and South Urals Schaminee et al, 2012
Caricion curvulae Br.-Bl. 1925 Alpine sedge swards on siliceous substrates of Alps, Eastern and Southern Carpathians Schaminee et al, 2012
Sieglingion decumbentis Gamisans 1976 Relictual oromediterranean oligothrophic wet silicicolous swards of Corsica Corsica Danthonion decumbentis Gamisans 1976 nom. mut. propos. Schaminee et al, 2012
Kobresion capilliformis Tsepkova 1987 Alpine summit graminoid tundra of high mountains of Caucasus Schaminee et al, 2012
Festucion xanthinae Lakušic et al. 1969 Subalpine grasslands on slightly acidic soils of southwestern Dinarides Festucion pseudoxanthinae Lakušic 1968; Festucion pseudoxanthinae Lakušic et al. in Lakušic 1969 Schaminee et al, 2012
Calamagrostion villosae Pawlowski et al. 1928 Tall-herb and fern-rich communities of acidic and leached soils of Alps, Carpathians and Hercynian mountains Poo chaixii-Deschampsion caespitosae Jeník et al. 1980; Calamagrostion villosae Br.-Bl. 1930 Schaminee et al, 2012
Potentillo montenegrinae-Festucion paniculatae Redžic ex Carni et Mucina 2013 Tussock grasslands on decalcified deep soils at high altitudes of Balkan Peninsula Carici-Festucion paniculatae calcicolum Redžic 2003; Festucion spadiceae Redžic et al. 1984; Potentillo montenegrinae-Festucion paniculatae Redžic (2003) 2011 Schaminee et al, 2012
Trifolion parnassii Quézel ex Quézel et al. 1992 Oromediterranean chionophilous mat-grass swards in mountains of central Hellas Trifolion parnassii Quézel 1964 Schaminee et al, 2012
Festucion eskiae Br.-Bl. 1948 Subalpine chionophilous tussock grasslands on decalcified oligotrophic substrates of Pyrenees and Cantabrian Mountains Festucion spadiceae Nègre 1969; Campanulo herminii-Festucion eskiae de Foucault 1994 Schaminee et al, 2012
Carici-Juncion trifidi Nordhagen 1943 Arctic and boreo-arctic rush swards on siliceous substrates of Scandinavia, Svalbard and Iceland Schaminee et al, 2012
Calamagrostion arundinaceae (Luquet 1926) Oberd. 1957 Tall species-rich grasslands on dry acidic soils of upper montane and subalpine belts of Western and Central Europe Calamagrostion arundinaceae Oberd. 1949; Calamagrostion atlanticum Luquet 1926; Dryopteridion Eggler 1952; Ligustico mutellinae-Luzulion desvauxii Michalet et Philippe 1994; Calamagrostion arundinaceae (Luquet 1926) Jeník 1961 Schaminee et al, 2012
Kobresio-Dryadion Nordhagen 1943 Grassy and dwarf-shrub fjelld vegetation of Scotland, Scandinavia, Iceland and Arctic Ocean islands Salicion polaris Du Rietz 1942; Caricion nardinae Nordhagen 1935; Dryadion octopetalae Kalliola 1939; Elynion bellardii boreoarcticum Nordhagen 1936; Elynion bellardii Nordhagen 1936; Kobresion myosuroidis Gams 1936; Dryadion Du Rietz 1942; Kobresio-Dryadion Nordhagen 1936; Kobresion myosuroidis Nordhagen 1936 nom. mut. propos.; Polarion Gjaerevoll 1950; Thymo arcticae-Kobresion Ohba 1974 Schaminee et al, 2012
Potentillo ternatae-Nardion Simon 1958 Oligothrophic mat-grass swards of mountainain ranges of south-central Balkan Peninsula Nardion strictae Horvat 1937; Potentillo ternatae-Nardion Simon 1957 Schaminee et al, 2012
Campanulo herminii-Nardion strictae Rivas-Mart. 1964 Relictual supratemperate submediterranean and supra-oromediterranean mat-grass swards of mountains of central and western Iberian Peninsula Schaminee et al, 2012
Seslerion comosae Horvat et al. 1937 Alpine and subalpine silicicolous grasslands on deep acidic soils in wind-exposed habitats of Balkan Peninsula Seslerion comosae Horvat 1936; Jasionion orbiculatae Lakušic 1964; Jasionion orbiculatae Lakušic 1966; Seslerion comosae Horvat 1935 Schaminee et al, 2012
Campanulion albanicae Lakušic 1966 Subalpine grasslands on slightly acidic soils of Montenegro and Kosovo Jasionion linifoliae sensu V. Randelovic et Raxhepi 1980; Campanulion albanicae Lakušic 1964; Campanulion linifoliae Lakušic 1964; Campanulion linifoliae Lakušic 1966; Festucion albanicae Lakušic 1967; Festucion albanicae Lakušic 1968; Festucion albanicae Lakušic 1969 Schaminee et al, 2012
Poion violaceae Horvat et al. 1937 Alpine and subalpine silicicolous grasslands on deep acidic soils in wind-sheltered habitats of Balkan Peninsula Bellardiochloion violaceae Sanda et al. 2001; Fesiucion valido-paniculatae (N. Randelovic 1974) V. Randelovic 2001; Festucion valido-paniculatae N. Randelovic 1974; Festucion valido-paniculatae N. Randelovic et al. 2008; Festucion valido-paniculatae V. Randelovic in V. Randelovic et Zlatkovic 2010; Genistion sericeae N. Randelovic 2008; Festuco-Poion violaceae Horvat 1936 Schaminee et al, 2012
Anemonion speciosae Minaeva ex Onipchenko 2002 Alpine swards on siliceous substrates of Caucasus Alchemillo caucasicae-Campanulion tridnetatae Korotkov et Belonovskaya 2000; Anemonion speciosae Minaeva 1987 Schaminee et al, 2012
Nardo-Caricion rigidae Nordhagen 1943 Moderately chionophilous mat-grass swards of Scandinavia and Hercynicum Deschampsio-Anthoxanthion Dahl 1957; Deschampsio-Anthoxanthion Du Rietz 1942; Deschampsio-Anthoxanthion Gjaerevoll 1956; Hierochloo orthantae-Juncion trifidi Knapp 1964; Nardo-Caricion bigelowii Nordhagen 1943 nom. mut. propos.; Nardo-Caricion rigidae Nordhagen 1936; Nardo-Caricion bigelowii Nordhagen 1936 nom. mut. propos. Schaminee et al, 2012
Sesamoido pygmaeae-Poion violaceae Gamisans 1975 Relictual oromediterranean oligothrophic dry silicicolous swards of Corsica and Sardinia Caricion caryophyllaeae Gamisans 1975; Caricion caryophyllaeae Gamisans 1977; Sedo alpestris-Phleion brachystachydis Gamisans 1975; Sedo alpestris-Phleion brachystachydis Gamisans 1977; Sesamoido pygmaeae-Poion violaceae Gamisans 1977; Sesamoido-Bellardiochloion variegatae Gamisans 1975 nom. mut. propos. Schaminee et al, 2012
Juncion trifidi Krajina 1934 Alpine rush swards on siliceous substrates of Western Carpathians Juncion trifidi Krajina 1933 Schaminee et al, 2012
Festucion versicoloris Krajina 1934 Tussock grasslands on mylonites in alpine belt of Carpathians Festucion versicoloris Krajina 1933 Schaminee et al, 2012
Carici macrostyli-Nardion (Rivas-Mart. et al. 1984) de Foucault 1994 Mat-grass chionophilous swards at high altidues of Pyrenees and Cantabrian Mountains Schaminee et al, 2012
Plantaginion thalackeri Quézel 1953 Relictual oro-cryomediterranean hygrophilous and chionophilous mat-grass swards of souht Spanish Sierra Nevada Plantaginion nivalis Quézel 1953 nom. mut. propos. Schaminee et al, 2012
Festucion variae Br.-Bl. ex Guinochet 1938 Tussock grasslands on decalcified soils of high altitudes of Alps and Pyrenees Festucion variae Br.-Bl. 1925; Festucion spadiceae Br.-Bl. 1972; Hyperico richeri-Festucion spadiceae (Br.-Bl. 1972) de Foucault 2012 Schaminee et al, 2012
Agrostion alpinae Jeník et al. 1980 Tussock grasslands on steep, terraced slopes in subalpine belt of eastern Hercynicum Schaminee et al, 2012
Festucion supinae Br.-Bl. 1948 Alpine chionophobous tussock grasslands of cryoturbated soils ofnsiliceous substrates of Pyrenees Festucion airoidis Br.-Bl. 1948 nom. mut. propos.; Festucion alpinae Borza 1958 Schaminee et al, 2012
Potentillo rigoanae-Festucion paniculatae Di Pietro all. nova hoc loco diagnosis Schaminee et al, 2012

Species mentioned in habitat description

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 200112 36.3 Boreo-Alpic acidophilous alpine grasslands same
CORINE Land Cover 3.2.1. Natural grassland n/a
Phase 1 habitat classification (UK) 1993 D4 Montane heath/dwarf forb wider
Milieux Naturels de Suisse 1998 4.3.6 Pelouse rocheuse acide narrower
Milieux Naturels de Suisse 1998 4.3.5 Pâturage maigre acide narrower
Milieux Naturels de Suisse 1998 4.3.7 Pelouse acide de l'étage alpin supérieur narrower
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 E4.3 Acid alpine and subalpine grassland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 E4.3 Acid alpine and subalpine grassland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 E4.3 Acid alpine and subalpine grassland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 E4.3 Acid alpine and subalpine grassland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 E4.2 Acid alpine and subalpine grassland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199712 E4.2 Boreal and alpine acid grassland same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 199905 36.3 Boreo-Alpic acidophilous alpine grasslands same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1997 36.3 Boreo-Alpic acidophilous alpine grasslands same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1996 36.3   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1993 36.3   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1991 36.3   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1989 36.3   same
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