Calcareous alpine and subalpine grassland

English name: Calcareous alpine and subalpine grassland

Description (English)

Alpine and subalpine grasslands of base-rich soils of the high mountains of the nemoral, submediterranean and supramediterranean zones. Characteristic species of the Alps include Dryas octopetala, Gentiana nivalis, Gentiana campestris, Alchemilla hoppeana, Alchemilla conjuncta, Alchemilla flabellata, Anthyllis vulneraria, Astragalus alpinus, Aster alpinus, Draba aizoides, Globularia nudicaulis, Helianthemum nummularium ssp. grandiflorum, Helianthemum oelandicum ssp. alpestre, Pulsatilla alpina ssp. alpina, Phyteuma orbiculare, Astrantia major and Polygala alpestris.

Source:
EUNIS habitat classification
Interpretation Manual of the habitats targeted by Resolution No. 4

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code E4.4
Bern Convention Resolution 4 habitat type (used for designation of Emerald sites)
Relation to Annex I habitat types (EU Habitats Directive)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Name Definition Other names Reference
Avenion sempervirentis Barbero 1968 Supramediterranean dry calcareous grasslands of Maritime and Ligurian Alps Avenion montanae Barbero 1968; Ononidion cenisiae Barbero 1968; Astragalion aristati Archiloque et al. 1971; Helictotrichion sedenensis Barbero 1968 nom. mut. propos.; Helictotrichion sempervirentis Barbero 1968 nom. mut. propos.; Ononidion cenisiae Barbero 1970 Schaminee et al, 2012
Agrostion alpinae Jeník et al. 1980 Tussock grasslands on steep, terraced slopes in subalpine belt of eastern Hercynicum Schaminee et al, 2012
Dryadion integrifoliae Ohba ex Daniëls 1982 Wind-exposed dwarf shrub heath and graminoid vegetation on non acidic substrates of Greenland and Arctic North America Dryadion integrifoliae Ohba 1974 Schaminee et al, 2012
Ononidion cristatae Royer 1991 Supratemperate submediterranean dry calcareous grasslands of southwestern Alps Schaminee et al, 2012
Festucion pungentis Horvat 1930 Subalpine calcareous tussock grasslands on steep terraced slopes of Northern Dinarides Festucion bosniacae Horvat 1930 nom. mut. propos. Schaminee et al, 2012
Festucion burnatii Rivas Goday et Rivas-Mart. ex Mayor et al. 1973 Cantabrian supra-orotemperate grasslands on calcareous lithosols Schaminee et al, 2012
Festucion scopariae Br.-Bl. 1948 Upper supratemperate and lower orotemperate calcareous dry pastures of Central and Eastern Pyrenees Festucion gautieri Br.-Bl. 1948 nom. mut. propos.; Saponarion caespitosae P. Montserrat et Villar 1987 Schaminee et al, 2012
Oxytropido-Elynion myosuroidis Br.-Bl. 1950 Alpine summit graminoid tundra of high mountains in Central Europe, Apennines and Balkans Elynion Gams 1936; Elynion medioeuropeum Br.-Bl. 1948; Elynion medioeuropeum Br.-Bl. 1954; Oxytropido-Elynion myosuroidis Br.-Bl. 1949; Oxytropido-Elynion myosuroidis Oberd. 1957; Oxytropido-Kobresion Br.-Bl. (1948) 1949 nom. mut. propos. (orig form); Oxytropido-Kobresion myosuroidis Br.-Bl. 1950 nom. mut. propos.; Oxytropido-Kobresion Oberd. 1957 nom. mut. propos. Schaminee et al, 2012
Laserpitio nestleri-Ranunculion thorae Vigo ex Molero 1981 Pyreneean chionophilous humid calcareous grasslands in subalpine belt Laserpitio nestleri-Ranunculion thorae Vigo 1979; Salicion pyrenaicae Vigo ex Rivas-Mart. et al. 2002 Schaminee et al, 2012
Seslerio-Festucion xanthinae Horvat in Horvat et al. 1974 Secondary montane grasslands on limestone, derived from beech and pine forests Seslerio-Festucion xanthinae Horvat 1949 Schaminee et al, 2012
Ononidion striatae Br.-Bl. et Susplugas 1937 Supratemperate submediterranean dry calcareous grasslands of Western Pyrenees and catalano-valencian region Schaminee et al, 2012
Kobresio-Dryadion Nordhagen 1943 Grassy and dwarf-shrub fjelld vegetation of Scotland, Scandinavia, Iceland and Arctic Ocean islands Salicion polaris Du Rietz 1942; Caricion nardinae Nordhagen 1935; Dryadion octopetalae Kalliola 1939; Elynion bellardii boreoarcticum Nordhagen 1936; Elynion bellardii Nordhagen 1936; Kobresion myosuroidis Gams 1936; Dryadion Du Rietz 1942; Kobresio-Dryadion Nordhagen 1936; Kobresion myosuroidis Nordhagen 1936 nom. mut. propos.; Polarion Gjaerevoll 1950; Thymo arcticae-Kobresion Ohba 1974 Schaminee et al, 2012
Festucion versicoloris Krajina 1934 Tussock grasslands on mylonites in alpine belt of Carpathians Festucion versicoloris Krajina 1933 Schaminee et al, 2012
Seslerion apenninae Bruno et Furnari 1966 Subalpine and alpine calcareous tussock grasslands in wind-exposed habitats in Central and Southern Apennines Seslerion apenninae Lakušic 1968; Seslerion apenninae Lakušic 1969 Schaminee et al, 2012
Primulion intricatae Br.-Bl. ex Vigo 1972 Chionophilous meso-hygrophilous calcareous grasslands on nutrient-rich soils in subalpine and alpine belts of Pyrenees Primulion intricatae Br.-Bl. 1948 Schaminee et al, 2012
Oxytropidion dinaricae Lakušic 1966 Alpine tussock grasslands on limestone in southwestern Dinarides Oxytropidion dinaricae Jovanovic et al. 1986; Edraiathion nivei Lakušic et al. 1979; Oxytropidion dinaricae Lakušic 1968; Oxytropidion dinaricae Lakušic 1964; Oxytropidion dinaricae Lakušic 1970; Oxytropidion urumovii Lakušic 1966 nom. mut. propos. (sensu Redžic 2003) Schaminee et al, 2012
Seslerio juncifoliae-Caricion firmae Trinajstic 2005 Alpine calcareous sedge swards on wind-exposed slopes in alpine belt of Illyrian-Dinaric regions Schaminee et al, 2012
Anthyllido-Seslerion klasterskyi Simon 1958 Alpine tussock grasslands on limestone in mountains of central Balkan Peninsula Edraiantho-Seslerion Horvat 1949; Edraiantho-Seslerion Horvat 1960; Anthyllido-Seslerion klasterskyi Simon 1957 Schaminee et al, 2012
Seslerion coeruleae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et Jenny 1926 Supramontane to alpine calcareous subxerophilous blue-grass swards of Central and Eastern Alps Seslerion albicantis Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et Jenny 1926 corr. Oberd. 1983; Seslerion variae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et Jenny 1926 nom. mut. propos. Schaminee et al, 2012
Seslerion tatrae Pawlowski 1935 corr. Klika 1955 Chionophilous calcareous alpine grasslands of Western Carpathians Seslerion bielzii Pawlowski 1935; Seslerion tatrae Pawlowski 1956 Schaminee et al, 2012
Festuco saxatilis-Seslerion bielzii (Pawlowski et Walas 1949) Coldea 1984 Chionophilous calcareous alpine grasslands of Southern Carpathians Festucion marmarossicae Pawlowski et Walas 1949; Seslerion bielzii calcophilum Pop 1968 Schaminee et al, 2012
Kobresion capilliformis Tsepkova 1987 Alpine summit graminoid tundra of high mountains of Caucasus Schaminee et al, 2012
Festucion xanthinae Lakušic et al. 1969 Subalpine grasslands on slightly acidic soils of southwestern Dinarides Festucion pseudoxanthinae Lakušic 1968; Festucion pseudoxanthinae Lakušic et al. in Lakušic 1969 Schaminee et al, 2012
Festuco-Knaution longifoliae Jovanovic-Dunjic 1955 Subalpine calcareous tussock grasslands of eastern Serbia Festuco-Knaution longifoliae Horvat 1949 Schaminee et al, 2012
Seslerio-Asterion alpini Hadac ex Hadac et al. 1969 Alpine and subalpine calcareous sub-xeric blue-grass swards of Western Carpathians Astero alpini-Seslerion calcariae Hadac ex Hadac et al. 1969 nom. invers. propos.; Astero serpentimontani-Seslerion Hadac 1962 corr. Mucina 1981; Astero-Seslerion calcariae Hadac et Smola 1962; Seslerio-Asterion alpini Hadac 1962 Schaminee et al, 2012
Caricion austroalpinae Sutter 1962 Supramontane to alpine calcareous subxerophilous swards on Southern Alps Schaminee et al, 2012
Caricion firmae Gams 1936 Wind-exposed calcarous sedge swards in alpine belt of Alps and Carpathians Caricion firmae Hadac 1962; Loiseleurion calcicolum Wendelberger 1971; Loiseleurion calcicolum Wendelberger 1970; Loiseleurio-Vaccinion Br.-Bl. ex Wendelberger 1962 Schaminee et al, 2012
Armerion cantabricae Rivas-Mart. et al. 1984 Cantabrian chionophilous subalpine and alpine calcareous grasslands Schaminee et al, 2012
Seslerion tenuifoliae Horvat 1930 Montane to subalpine calcareous tussock blue-grass grasslands of Illyrian-Dinaric regions Seslerion juncifoliae Horvat 1930 nom. corr. propos.; Edraianthion croatici Lakušic et al. 1980; Edraianthion croatici Lakušic et al. 1982; Seslerio-Edraianthion pumili Redžic 2003 Schaminee et al, 2012
Seslerion nitidae Horvat 1936 Subalpine calcareous tussock grasslands of south-central Balkan Peninsula Onobrychido-Festucion Horvat 1960; Seslerion nitidae Horvat 1937; Seslerion nitidae Horvat 1954; Seslerion argenteae Redžic 2003; Seslerion robustae Horvat 1936 nom. mut. propos. (see Redžic 2003) Schaminee et al, 2012
Minuartio-Poion ligulatae O. de Bolòs 1962 Castillian-Oroiberian supra-oromediterranean grasslands on calcareous and ultramafic soils Festuco hystricis-Poion ligulatae Rivas Goday et Rivas-Mart. 1963; Sideritido fontquerianae-Arenarion aggregatae Rivas-Mart. et al. 2001 nom corr.; Sideritido fontquerianae-Arenarion microphyllae Rivas-Mart. et al. 2002; Sideritido pulvinatae-Arenarion aggregatae Rivas Goday et Borja 1961 Schaminee et al, 2012
Caricion ferrugineae G. Br.-Bl. et Br.-Bl. in G. Br.-Bl. 1931 Supramontane to alpine calcareous meso-hygrophilous sedge swards of Alps and Carpathians Calamagrostion variae Sillinger 1932; Laserpition latifolii Richard 1977; Festucion carpaticae Belohlávková et Fišerová 1989; Caricion ferrugineae Höhn 1936 Schaminee et al, 2012

Species mentioned in habitat description

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 200112 36.4 Boreo-Alpic calciphilous alpine grasslands same
CORINE Land Cover 3.2.1. Natural grassland n/a
Milieux Naturels de Suisse 1998 4.3.2 Pelouse calcaire sèche à laîche ferme narrower
Milieux Naturels de Suisse 1998 4.3.4 Gazon des crêtes ventées narrower
Milieux Naturels de Suisse 1998 4.3.1 Pelouse calcaire sèche à seslerie narrower
Milieux Naturels de Suisse 1998 4.3.3 Pelouse calcaire fraîche narrower
Biotopes of Slovakia 1996 9321200 Spolocenstvá svahových kamenitých pôd a skál na vápencoch a dolomitoch n/a
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 E4.4 Calcareous alpine and subalpine grassland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 E4.4 Calciphilous alpine and subalpine grassland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 E4.4 Calciphilous alpine and subalpine grassland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 E4.4 Calciphilous alpine and subalpine grassland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 E4.3 Calciphilous alpine and subalpine grassland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199712 E4.3 Calciphilous alpine grassland same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 199905 36.4 Boreo-Alpic calciphilous alpine grasslands same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1997 36.4 Boreo-Alpic calciphilous alpine grasslands same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1996 36.4   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1993 36.4   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1991 36.4   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1989 36.4   same
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100