Abies and Picea woodland

English name: Fir and spruce woodland

Description (English)

Woodland dominated by Abies or Picea.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code G3.1
Relation to Annex I habitat types (EU Habitats Directive)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Name Definition Other names Reference
Abieti-Piceion (Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et al. 1939) Soó 1964 Mesophilous fir forests on brown forest soils of Central and southwestern European mountains Abietion albae Brezina et Hadac in Hadac ex Hadac 1965; Abietion albae Isser 1931; Abietion silicicolum P. Fukarek 1969; Abieti-Piceion excelsae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et al. 1939; Blechno-Abietion albae P. Fukarek 1969; Galio rotundifolii-Abietion albae Oberd. 1957; Vaccinio-Abietion albae Oberd. 1962; Piceo-Abietion albae Ellenberg et Klötzli 1972; Piceion abietis Lakušic et al. 1979; Piceion omoricae Lakušic 1975; Piceion omorikae Lakušic 1977; Galio rotundifolii-Abietion albae (Oberd. 1962) Rivas-Martínez 1987 Schaminee et al, 2012
Geranio striati-Fagion Gentile 1970 Refugial beech and mixed beech-fir forests of Southern Apennines and southwestern Balkans Campanulo trichocalycinae-Fagion Corbetta et Ubaldi in Ubaldi et al. 1986; Campanulo trrichocalycinae-Fagion Corbetta et Ubaldi in Ubaldi et al. 1990; Campanulo trrichocalycinae-Fagion Ubaldi ex S. Brullo et al. 2001; Aquifolio-Fagion Corbetta et Ubaldi in Ubaldi et al. 1986 (orig. form); Fagion mediterraneo-montanum A. Hofmann 1960; Fagion meridionale Bonin 1968; Geranio versicoloris-Fagion Gentile 1970 nom. mut. propos.; Fagion austro-italicum Soó 1964; Fagion hellenicum Quézel 1967; Aremonio-Fagion Gentile 1963; Doronico orientalis-Fagion sylvaticae Ubaldi et al. 1990; Doronico orientalis-Fagion sylvaticae Ubaldi et al. ex Ubaldi 1995; Fagion mediterraneo-montanum Br.-Bl. 1960; Lamio flexuosi-Fagion Gentile 1969 Schaminee et al, 2012
Vaccinio-Fagion orientalis Passarge 1981 Oriental beech forests on nutrient-poor acid soils of Colchis region Schaminee et al, 2012
Lonicero alpigenae-Fagion (Borhidi ex Soó 1964) Dierschke 1997 Post-glacial beech and mixed beech-fir forests of northern and southern piedmonts of Alps Fagion austroalpinum P. Fukarek 1979 Schaminee et al, 2012
Calamagrostio arundinaceae-Abietion Horvat 1962 nom. invers. propos. Coniferous forests with tall-herb undergowth on limestone and dolomite boulder screes in montane to subalpine belst in western Balkans Abieti-Calamagrostion arundinaceae Horvat 1962; Abieti-Calamagrostion arundinaceae Horvat 1954 Schaminee et al, 2012
Aconito rubicundi-Abietion sibiricae Anekhonov et Chytrý 1998 Mesophilous boreal coniferous forests with tall-herb undergrowth of South Urals and southern Siberia Schaminee et al, 2012
Paeonio broteroi-Abietion pinsapo (Rivas-Mart. 1987) Rivas-Mart. et al. 2002 Betic relic fir forests with Abies pinsapo on dolomitic and ultramafic rocks Paeonio broteroi-Abietion pinsapo (Rivas-Mart. 1987) Rivas-Mart. et al. 2001; Paeonio broteroi-Abietion pinsapo Rivas-Mart. 1982 Schaminee et al, 2012
Luzulo-Fagion sylvaticae Lohmeyer et Tx. in Tx. 1954 Acidophilous beech forests of Western, Central and southeastern Europe Eu-Luzulo-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge in Passarge et G. Hofmann 1968; Fagion moesiacum P. Fukarek 1969; Maianthemo-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge in Passarge et G. Hofmann 1968; Melampyro-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge in Passarge et G. Hofmann 1968; Molinio-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge 1968; Molinio-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge in Passarge et G. Hofmann 1968; Myrtillo-Fagion sylvaticae G. Hofmann et Passarge in Scamoni 1963 (orig. form); Myrtillo-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge in Passarge et G. Hofmann 1968 (orig. form); Deschampsio-Fagion sylvaticae Soó 1962; Deschampsio-Fagion sylvaticae Soó 1964; Deschampsio-Fagion sylvaticae Soó 1971; Dicrano-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge 1968; Eu-Luzulo-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge 1968; Eu-Myrtillo-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge 1968 (orig. form); Eu-Myrtillo-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge in Passarge et G. Hofmann 1968 (orig. form); Maianthemo-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge 1968; Melampyro-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge 1968; Polygonato verticillati-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge 1968 Schaminee et al, 2012
Piceion excelsae Pawlowski et al. 1928 European boreo-montane spruce and pine forests of nutrient-poor habitats Linnaeo-Piceion abietis (Br.-Bl. et Sissingh in Br.-Bl. et al. 1939) Rivas-Mart. in Rivas-Mart. et al. 2011; Linnaeo-Piceion excelsae (Br.-Bl. et Sissingh in Br.-Bl. et al. 1939) Oberd. 1979; Oxalidion acetosellae Krajina 1933; Piceion abietis Pawlowski et al. 1928 nom. mut. propos.; Piceion illyrico-moesiacum P. Fukarek 1969; Piceion septentrionale Tx. 1955; Pinion cembrae Rivas-Mart. in Rivas-Mart. et al. 2011; Pleurozio-Piceion abietis Passarge 1968; Pleurozio-Piceion abietis Passarge in Passarge et G. Hofmann 1968; Vaccinio-Piceion excelsae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et al. 1939; Oxalidion acetosellae Krajina 1934; Oxalido-Piceion excelsae (Krajina 1933) Brezina et Hadac in Hadac 1962 Schaminee et al, 2012
Fagion moesiacae Blecic et Lakušic 1970 Refugial beech and mixed beech-fir forests of eastern Dinarides and Rodopi Fagion moesiacae subalpinum B. Jovanovic 1976; Fagion moesiacum P. Fukarek 1969; Doronico columnae-Fagion moesiacae (Dzwonko et al. 1999) Dierschke 2004; Doronico orientalis-Fagion moesiacae (Raus ex Bergmeier 1990 ) Dierschke 2004; Doronico orientalis-Fagion moesiacae Dierschke 1998; Fagion hellenicum Horvat et al. 1974; Fagion moesiacae Dafis 1973; Fagion moesiacae Horvat et al. 1974; Fagion moesiacae To¨ro¨k, Podani et Borhidi 1989; Fagion orientalis Borza et Boscaiu 1965; Seslerio autumnalis-Fagion moesiacae (Blecic et Lakušic 1970) Redžic et Barudanovic 2010 Schaminee et al, 2012
Fagion sylvaticae Luquet 1926 Post-glacial beech and mixed beech-fir forests of western Central and northern Europe Asperulo-Fagion Knapp 1942; Asperulo-Fagion Tx. 1955; Fraxino excelsioris-Fagion sylvaticae Hofmann et Passarge 1963; Eu-Fagion Klika in Klika et Novák 1941; Eu-Fagion medioeuropaeum Soó 1960; Fagion medio-europaeum Soó 1962; Abieti albae-Fagion sylvaticae Gillet 1986; Antherico-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge 1968; Asperulo-Fagion Knapp in Tx. et Oberd. 1958; Dentario-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge 1968; Eu-Asperulo-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge 1968; Eu-Fraxino-Fagion sylvaticae Passrage 1968; Galio odorati-Fagion Knapp ex Tx. et Oberd. 1958 nom. mut. propos.; Galio-Fagion sylvaticae Moor 1978; Impatienti-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge 1968; Petasito-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge 1968; Rumici arifolii-Fagion sylvaticae Passarge 1968 Schaminee et al, 2012
Fagion orientalis Soó 1964 Mesic oriental beech forests on basic soils of southeastern Balkan Peninsula, Crimea, northern Anatolia and Colchis region Dentario quinquefoliae-Fagion Didukh 1996; Carpino-Fagion orientalis Kavgaci et al. 2012; Violo odoratae-Fagion orientalis Kavgaci et al. 2012; Fagion orientalis Korzhenevsky 1962; Fagion orientalis Quézel, Barbero et Akman ex Quézel et al. 1992; Carpino-Fagion orientalis Zohary 1973; Fagion orientalis colchicum Zohary 1973; Fagion orientalis euxinum Zohary 1973; Fagion orientalis Korzhenevsky et Kyselev 1982; Fagion orientalis Quézel et al. 1980; Fagion tauricum Borhidi in Soó 1964; Lauroceraso-Fagion Horvat et al. 1974; Querco-Fagion orientalis Zohary 1973; Rhododendro pontici-Fagion orientalis Horvat et al. 1974; Rhododendro pontici-Fagion orientalis Horvat et al. ex Passarge 1981 Schaminee et al, 2012
Aremonio-Fagion Török et al. ex Marincek et al. 1993 Beech and mixed beech-fir forests of Illyrian region and western Dinarides and central Italy Fagion illyricum Horvat 1938; Fago-Colurnion Borhidi 1963 (orig. form); Lonicero-Fagion Borhidi 1963; Aremonio-Fagion (Horvat 1938) Borhidi in Török et al. 1989; Fagion circumpannonicum P. Fukarek 1977; Fagion illyricum Horvat 1950 Schaminee et al, 2012
Symphyto cordati-Fagion (Vida 1963) Täuber 1982 Refugial beech and mixed beech-fir forests of Carpathians Acerion dacicum Soó 1964; Fagion dacicum Soó 1960; Symphyto cordati-Fagion Soó 1964 Schaminee et al, 2012
Abietion cephalonicae Horvat et al. 1974 Hellenic fir and black pine montane forests Abietion borisii-regis Em 1985; Abietion borisii-regis Em in B. Jovanovic et al. 1986; Abieti cephalonicae-Pinion pallasianae Barbero et Quézel ex Quézel et al. 1992 Schaminee et al, 2012
Chrysanthemo rotundifolii-Piceion (Krajina 1934) Brezina et Hadac in Hadac 1962 Herb-rich mesophilous spruce forests of Central and north European mountains Chrysanthemion rotundifolii Krajina 1933; Athyrio alpestris-Piceion excelsae Sýkora 1971; Chrysanthemion rotundifolii Krajina 1934 Schaminee et al, 2012

Species mentioned in habitat description

Not available

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 200112 42.1 Western Palaearctic fir forests narrower
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 200112 42.2 Western Palaearcic orogenous spruce forests narrower
CORINE Land Cover 3.1.2. Coniferous forest n/a
BEAR Forest Types for Biodiversity Assessment 08 Mixed spruce and fir forest narrower
Phase 1 habitat classification (UK) 1993 A121 Woodland: coniferous, semi-natural overlap
Milieux Naturels de Suisse 1998 6.6 Forêts de cônifères d'altitude narrower
Milieux Naturels de Suisse 1998 6.5 Forêts de tourbières overlap
Biotopes of Slovakia 1996 2117200 Jedlové a jedlovo-smrekové lesy n/a
Biotopes of Slovakia 1996 2117500 Smrekové lesy zamokrené n/a
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland same
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