Raised bogs

English name: Raised bogs

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code D1.1
Relation to Annex I habitat types (EU Habitats Directive)

Description (English)

The mire surface and underlying peat of highly oligotrophic, strongly acidic peatlands with a raised centre from which water drains towards the edges. The peat is composed mainly of sphagnum remains. Raised bogs form on nearly flat ground and derive moisture and nutrients only from rainfall (ombrotrophic). Raised bog complexes (X04) include larger bog pools (C1.46) and a marginal lagg (C1.47), as well as the main mire surface (D1.1), which in actively-growing raised bogs typically comprises a complex of low hummocks, small pools and their associated vegetation. Raised bogs form only in cool climates with high rainfall. They are most widespread in the boreal zone and in the mountains and hills of the nemoral zone; they occur locally in the lowlands of the nemoral zone. They are characteristic of lowlands and hills of northwestern and northern Europe, the adjacent Hercynian ranges, the Jura, the Alps and the Carpathians. Bogs harbour, in addition to sphagna, which are often abundant, a small number of vascular plants such as Eriophorum vaginatum, Scirpus cespitosus (Trichophorum cespitosum), Carex pauciflora, Carex paupercula, Ledum palustre, Vaccinium oxycoccos, Andromeda polifolia and Drosera rotundifolia, and lichens. Animal species are not numerous but those that are adapted to bogs are highly specialised. Among typical invertebrates figure dragonflies (Leucorrhinia dubia, Aeshna subarctica, Aeshna caerulea, Aeshna juncea, Somatochlora arctica, Somatochlora alpestris), lepidopterans (Colias palaeno, Boloria aquilonaris, Coenonympha tullia, Vacciniina optilete, Hypenodes turfosalis, Eugraphe subrosea), beetles, ants (Formica exsecta), bugs and spiders (Pardosa sphagnicola, Glyphesis cottonae). Most of the species that bogs harbour are rare and their populations fragmented into isolated relictual elements; several are threatened. The remaining intact or nearly intact communities are exceptional.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Name Definition Other names Reference
Oxycocco microcarpi-Empetrion hermaphroditi Nordhagen ex Du Rietz 1954 Bogs of boreal-arctic zones and in alpine belt in nemoral mountain ranges of Eurasia Oxycocco-Empetrion hermaphroditi Nordhagen 1936; Oxycocco-Empetrion hermaphroditi Nordhagen 1943; Oxycocco-Empetrion hermaphroditi Nordhagen ex Hadac et Vána 1967; Eu-Fuscion Du Rietz 1950 (orig. form); Vaccinion microcarpi Julve 1992 Schaminee et al, 2012
Sphagnion medii Kästner et Flössner 1933 Bogs of sub-continental and montane regions from mountain belt spanning mediterranean and boreal regions of Eurasia Calluno-Sphagnion fusci Tx. in Tx. et al. 1972; Eriophorion vaginati Krajina 1933; Sphagnion europaeum Schwickerath 1941; Sphagnion medio-fusci Malmer 1968; Sphagno fallacis-Eriophorion vaginati Timmermann in Dengler et al. 2004; Vaginato-Sphagnion europaeum Duvigneaud 1949 (orig. form); Sphagnion magellanici Kästner et Flössner 1933 nom. mut. propos.; Eriophorion vaginati Krajina 1934; Sphagnion fusci Br.-Bl. 1926 nom. ambig. propos. Schaminee et al, 2012
Ericion tetralicis Schwickerath 1933 Moist peaty heathlands on gley and podsolic soils within oceanic areas in Western and Central Europe Calluno-Sphagnion papillosi Tx. in Tx. et al. 1972; Narthecion ossifragi Vanden Berghen 1958; Scirpion caespitosi Oberd. 1957; Trichophoro-Ericion tetralicis (Schwickerath 1933) Duvigneaud 1947; Ulici-Ericion tetralicis (Schwickerath 1933) Tx. 1937; Droserion longifoliae Julve 1992; Erico mackaianae-Sphagnion papillosi (Fernández Prieto et al. 1987) Rivas-Mart. et al.1999 Schaminee et al, 2012
Oxycocco-Ericion tetralicis Nordhagen ex Tx. 1937 Oligotrophic vegetation on bogs and acidic fens in oceanic and suboceanic regions of Europe Calluno-Sphagnion papillosi (Schwickerath 1933) Tx. in Tx. et al. 1972; Carici-Sphagnion papillosi Malmer 1964; Erico-Sphagnion papillosi Moore 1968; Oxycocco-Ericion tetralicis Nordhagen 1936; Sphagnion europaei Schwickerath 1940 Schaminee et al, 2012
Sphagnion cuspidati Krajina 1934 Vegetation of stagnant, acid, dystrophic waters in pools of bogs on deep peats of Europe Caricion rotundatae Kalliola 1939; Droserion intermediae Succow 1974; Leuko-Scheuchzerion palustris Nordhagen 1943; Molinio caeruleae-Rhynchosporion albae (Koch 1926) de Foucault 1984; Rhynchosporion albae sensu auct., non Koch 1926; Scheuchzerion palustris Nordhagen 1936; Scheuchzerion palustris Nordhagen ex Tx. 1937; Scheuchzerio-Rhynchosporion albae (Koch 1926) Succow 1974; Scheuchzerio-Rhynchosporion albae Duvigneaud 1949; Sphagnion cuspidati Krajina 1933; Stygio-Caricion limosae Nordhagen 1943; Scheuchzerion palustris Nordhagen 1937 Schaminee et al, 2012

Species mentioned in habitat description

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 200112 51 Raised bogs same
CORINE Land Cover 4.1.2. Peatbogs n/a
Biodiversity Action Plan Priority Habitats (UK) 20 Lowland raised bog narrower
Milieux Naturels de Suisse 1998 2.2.4 Cariçaie de transition overlap
Milieux Naturels de Suisse 1998 2.4 Tourbière same
Biotopes of Slovakia 1996 8261000 Vrchoviská n/a
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types
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