EUNIS habitat classification 2017 > T - Forest and other wooded land > T1 - Broadleaved deciduous forest > T1-9 - Temperate and submediterranean thermophilous deciduous forest

Temperate and submediterranean thermophilous deciduous forest

Description (English)

These thermophilous broadleaved deciduous forests form a wide, but interrupted, belt across the submediterranean zone of Europe, with milder winters and warmer drought-prone summers than sustain the broadleaved temperate forests, but colder, intermittently frosty and snowy winters than are typical for the evergreen broadleaved forests and scrub of the Mediterranean. To the north, they tend to occupy lower altitude, drier and warmer sites, to the south, rainier sites at higher altitudes.
The canopy, rarely very tall, is dominated by thermophilous and drought-resistant deciduous (and some evergreen) trees, among which oaks are the commonest contributors to the forest canopy. The light shade cast by the oaks and over trees allows a dense shrub layer to develop including some evergreen Mediterranean species. The herb layer is rich with sub-Mediterranean species making a prominent contribution.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code T1-9
Relation to Resolution 4 habitat type (used for designation of Emerald sites)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Indicator species

Diagnostic species
Constant species
Dominant species
Flowering Plants Quercus pubescens
Flowering Plants Quercus cerris
Flowering Plants Fraxinus ornus
Flowering Plants Buglossoides purpurocaerulea
Flowering Plants Cornus mas
Flowering Plants Carpinus orientalis
Flowering Plants Quercus frainetto
Flowering Plants Crataegus monogyna
Flowering Plants Ostrya carpinifolia
Flowering Plants Ligustrum vulgare
Flowering Plants Acer monspessulanum
Flowering Plants Sorbus domestica
Flowering Plants Tamus communis
Flowering Plants Sorbus torminalis
Flowering Plants Lathyrus niger
Flowering Plants Viola alba
Flowering Plants Tanacetum corymbosum

Diagnostic species occur concentrated in the habitat in question, but are absent or rare in other habitats. They are good positive indicators of the habitat, but they do not need to occur in every location of the habitat.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Quercus pubescens Flowering Plants
Quercus cerris Flowering Plants
Fraxinus ornus Flowering Plants
Buglossoides purpurocaerulea Flowering Plants
Cornus mas Flowering Plants
Carpinus orientalis Flowering Plants
Quercus frainetto Flowering Plants
Crataegus monogyna Flowering Plants
Ostrya carpinifolia Flowering Plants
Ligustrum vulgare Flowering Plants
Acer monspessulanum Flowering Plants
Sorbus domestica Flowering Plants
Tamus communis Flowering Plants
Sorbus torminalis Flowering Plants
Lathyrus niger Flowering Plants
Viola alba Flowering Plants
Tanacetum corymbosum Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Crataegus monogyna
Flowering Plants Quercus pubescens
Flowering Plants Hedera helix
Flowering Plants Fraxinus ornus
Flowering Plants Ligustrum vulgare
Flowering Plants Acer campestre
Flowering Plants Brachypodium pinnatum
Flowering Plants Brachypodium sylvaticum
Flowering Plants Teucrium chamaedrys
Flowering Plants Prunus spinosa
Flowering Plants Quercus cerris
Flowering Plants Cornus sanguinea
Flowering Plants Rubia peregrina
Flowering Plants Clinopodium vulgare
Flowering Plants Quercus petraea
Flowering Plants Dactylis glomerata
Flowering Plants Cornus mas
Flowering Plants Tamus communis
Flowering Plants Viburnum lantana
Flowering Plants Fragaria vesca

Constant species occur frequently in the habitat, but they may include generalist species that are also frequent in other habitats.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Crataegus monogyna Flowering Plants
Quercus pubescens Flowering Plants
Hedera helix Flowering Plants
Fraxinus ornus Flowering Plants
Ligustrum vulgare Flowering Plants
Acer campestre Flowering Plants
Brachypodium pinnatum Flowering Plants
Brachypodium sylvaticum Flowering Plants
Teucrium chamaedrys Flowering Plants
Prunus spinosa Flowering Plants
Quercus cerris Flowering Plants
Cornus sanguinea Flowering Plants
Rubia peregrina Flowering Plants
Clinopodium vulgare Flowering Plants
Quercus petraea Flowering Plants
Dactylis glomerata Flowering Plants
Cornus mas Flowering Plants
Tamus communis Flowering Plants
Viburnum lantana Flowering Plants
Fragaria vesca Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Quercus pubescens
Flowering Plants Quercus cerris
Flowering Plants Quercus petraea
Flowering Plants Ostrya carpinifolia
Flowering Plants Quercus frainetto
Flowering Plants Quercus faginea
Flowering Plants Quercus robur
Flowering Plants Hedera helix
Flowering Plants Carpinus orientalis
Flowering Plants Buxus sempervirens
Flowering Plants Brachypodium pinnatum

Dominant species are those that often reach high cover in the habitat, thus determining the habitat physiognomy.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Quercus pubescens Flowering Plants
Quercus cerris Flowering Plants
Quercus petraea Flowering Plants
Ostrya carpinifolia Flowering Plants
Quercus frainetto Flowering Plants
Quercus faginea Flowering Plants
Quercus robur Flowering Plants
Hedera helix Flowering Plants
Carpinus orientalis Flowering Plants
Buxus sempervirens Flowering Plants
Brachypodium pinnatum Flowering Plants

Other classifications

Not available For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type Comment
EUNIS Habitat Classification 2007 (revised descriptions 2012) G1.7 Thermophilous deciduous woodland narrower split into Mediterranean and temperate/submediterranean types
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 G1.7 Thermophilous deciduous woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 G1.7 Thermophilous deciduous woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 G1.7 Thermophilous deciduous woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 G1.7 Thermophilous deciduous woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 G1.7 Thermophilous deciduous Quercus woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199712 G1.92 Thermophilous and supra-Mediterranean oak woodland same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 199905 41.7 Thermophilous and supra-Mediterranean oak woods same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1997 41.7 Thermophilous and supra-Mediterranean oak woods same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1996 41.7   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1993 41.7   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1991 41.7   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1989 41.7   same
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