Ilex aquifolium forest

Description (English)

Holly (Ilex aquifolium) dominated forest occurring in scattered localities across Europe and probably an arborescent survival of T3-D Taxus forest at middle altitudes in the Mediterranean zone and of T1-7 and T1-8 beech forests and T1-B oak forests in the nemoral lowlands.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code T2-8

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Indicator species

Diagnostic species
Constant species
Dominant species
Flowering Plants Ilex aquifolium
Flowering Plants Lonicera periclymenum
Flowering Plants Hedera helix

Diagnostic species occur concentrated in the habitat in question, but are absent or rare in other habitats. They are good positive indicators of the habitat, but they do not need to occur in every location of the habitat.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Ilex aquifolium Flowering Plants
Lonicera periclymenum Flowering Plants
Hedera helix Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Ilex aquifolium
Flowering Plants Hedera helix
Flowering Plants Lonicera periclymenum
Ferns Pteridium aquilinum
Flowering Plants Crataegus monogyna
Flowering Plants Fagus sylvatica
Flowering Plants Corylus avellana
Flowering Plants Vaccinium myrtillus
Flowering Plants Sorbus aucuparia
Flowering Plants Quercus petraea
Flowering Plants Deschampsia flexuosa
Flowering Plants Oxalis acetosella
Flowering Plants Sanicula europaea
Flowering Plants Rubus ulmifolius
Mosses & Liverworts Polytrichastrum formosum
Mosses & Liverworts Hypnum cupressiforme
Flowering Plants Tamus communis
Flowering Plants Melica uniflora
Flowering Plants Geranium robertianum

Constant species occur frequently in the habitat, but they may include generalist species that are also frequent in other habitats.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Ilex aquifolium Flowering Plants
Hedera helix Flowering Plants
Lonicera periclymenum Flowering Plants
Pteridium aquilinum Ferns
Crataegus monogyna Flowering Plants
Fagus sylvatica Flowering Plants
Corylus avellana Flowering Plants
Vaccinium myrtillus Flowering Plants
Sorbus aucuparia Flowering Plants
Quercus petraea Flowering Plants
Deschampsia flexuosa Flowering Plants
Oxalis acetosella Flowering Plants
Sanicula europaea Flowering Plants
Rubus ulmifolius Flowering Plants
Polytrichastrum formosum Mosses & Liverworts
Hypnum cupressiforme Mosses & Liverworts
Tamus communis Flowering Plants
Melica uniflora Flowering Plants
Geranium robertianum Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Ilex aquifolium
Ferns Pteridium aquilinum
Flowering Plants Hedera helix
Flowering Plants Vaccinium myrtillus

Dominant species are those that often reach high cover in the habitat, thus determining the habitat physiognomy.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Ilex aquifolium Flowering Plants
Pteridium aquilinum Ferns
Hedera helix Flowering Plants
Vaccinium myrtillus Flowering Plants

Other classifications

Not available For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type Comment
EUNIS Habitat Classification 2007 (revised descriptions 2012) G2.6 Ilex aquifolium woods same new description
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 G2.6 Ilex aquifolium woods same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 G2.6 Ilex aquifolium woods same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 G2.6 Ilex aquifolium woods same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 G2.6 Ilex aquifolium woods same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 G2.6 Ilex aquifolium woods same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199712 G2.6 Holly woods same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 199905 45.8 Western Palaearctic holly woods same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1997 45.8 Western Palaearctic holly woods same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1996 45.8   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1993 45.8   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1991 45.8   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1989 45.8   same
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