EUNIS habitat classification 2017 > T - Forest and other wooded land > T3 - Coniferous forest > T3-1 - Temperate mountain Picea forest

Temperate mountain Picea forest

Description (English)

Evergreen coniferous forest dominated by spruce (Picea abies and, in the Dinaric mountains, relict P. omorika), often with some fir (Abies alba) on usually acidic, even very oligotrophic, wet, cold or rocky soils in the montane and sub-alpine belts of nemoral mountains.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code T3-1

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Indicator species

Diagnostic species
Constant species
Dominant species
Flowering Plants Melampyrum sylvaticum
Conifers Picea abies
Flowering Plants Homogyne alpina
Flowering Plants Luzula luzulina
Flowering Plants Calamagrostis villosa
Flowering Plants Hieracium murorum
Flowering Plants Veronica urticifolia
Flowering Plants Vaccinium myrtillus
Ferns Gymnocarpium dryopteris
Flowering Plants Oxalis acetosella
Flowering Plants Luzula sylvatica
Ferns Lycopodium annotinum
Flowering Plants Prenanthes purpurea
Mosses & Liverworts Hylocomium splendens
Mosses & Liverworts Dicranum scoparium
Mosses & Liverworts Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus
Flowering Plants Lonicera nigra
Conifers Larix decidua
Flowering Plants Viola biflora
Flowering Plants Valeriana tripteris

Diagnostic species occur concentrated in the habitat in question, but are absent or rare in other habitats. They are good positive indicators of the habitat, but they do not need to occur in every location of the habitat.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Melampyrum sylvaticum Flowering Plants
Picea abies Conifers
Homogyne alpina Flowering Plants
Luzula luzulina Flowering Plants
Calamagrostis villosa Flowering Plants
Hieracium murorum Flowering Plants
Veronica urticifolia Flowering Plants
Vaccinium myrtillus Flowering Plants
Gymnocarpium dryopteris Ferns
Oxalis acetosella Flowering Plants
Luzula sylvatica Flowering Plants
Lycopodium annotinum Ferns
Prenanthes purpurea Flowering Plants
Hylocomium splendens Mosses & Liverworts
Dicranum scoparium Mosses & Liverworts
Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus Mosses & Liverworts
Lonicera nigra Flowering Plants
Larix decidua Conifers
Viola biflora Flowering Plants
Valeriana tripteris Flowering Plants
Conifers Picea abies
Flowering Plants Vaccinium myrtillus
Flowering Plants Oxalis acetosella
Flowering Plants Sorbus aucuparia
Flowering Plants Hieracium murorum
Mosses & Liverworts Dicranum scoparium
Flowering Plants Solidago virgaurea
Flowering Plants Homogyne alpina
Mosses & Liverworts Hylocomium splendens
Flowering Plants Prenanthes purpurea
Flowering Plants Deschampsia flexuosa
Flowering Plants Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Ferns Athyrium filix-femina
Flowering Plants Melampyrum sylvaticum
Flowering Plants Luzula sylvatica
Conifers Abies alba
Mosses & Liverworts Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus
Flowering Plants Maianthemum bifolium
Flowering Plants Fragaria vesca
Mosses & Liverworts Polytrichastrum formosum

Constant species occur frequently in the habitat, but they may include generalist species that are also frequent in other habitats.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Picea abies Conifers
Vaccinium myrtillus Flowering Plants
Oxalis acetosella Flowering Plants
Sorbus aucuparia Flowering Plants
Hieracium murorum Flowering Plants
Dicranum scoparium Mosses & Liverworts
Solidago virgaurea Flowering Plants
Homogyne alpina Flowering Plants
Hylocomium splendens Mosses & Liverworts
Prenanthes purpurea Flowering Plants
Deschampsia flexuosa Flowering Plants
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Flowering Plants
Athyrium filix-femina Ferns
Melampyrum sylvaticum Flowering Plants
Luzula sylvatica Flowering Plants
Abies alba Conifers
Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus Mosses & Liverworts
Maianthemum bifolium Flowering Plants
Fragaria vesca Flowering Plants
Polytrichastrum formosum Mosses & Liverworts
Conifers Picea abies
Flowering Plants Vaccinium myrtillus
Mosses & Liverworts Hylocomium splendens
Flowering Plants Oxalis acetosella
Mosses & Liverworts Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus
Flowering Plants Calamagrostis villosa

Dominant species are those that often reach high cover in the habitat, thus determining the habitat physiognomy.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Picea abies Conifers
Vaccinium myrtillus Flowering Plants
Hylocomium splendens Mosses & Liverworts
Oxalis acetosella Flowering Plants
Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus Mosses & Liverworts
Calamagrostis villosa Flowering Plants

Other classifications

Not available For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type Comment
EUNIS Habitat Classification 2007 (revised descriptions 2012) G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland narrower divided into three types (according to dominant species and geographic distribution)
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland same
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