Caledonian forest

Description (English)

Relict, indigenous Scots pine forests of endemic Pinus sylvestris var. scotica, limited to the central and northeastern Grampians of Scotland. They are mostly open and have a ground layer usually rich in ericaceous species and mosses, in particular, Hylocomium splendens, and often harbouring, together with abundant Deschampsia flexuosa, Goodyera repens, Listera cordata, Corallorhiza trifida, Linnaea borealis, Trientalis europaea, Pyrola minor, Moneses uniflora, Orthilia secunda. Accompanying, dominated, tree species include Juniperus communis, Sorbus aucuparia, Betula pubescens, Betula pendula, Ilex aquifolium, Populus tremula.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code T3-51
Relation to Resolution 4 habitat type (used for designation of Emerald sites)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Species mentioned in habitat description

Flowering Plants Betula pendula
Flowering Plants Betula pubescens
Flowering Plants Corallorhiza trifida
Flowering Plants Deschampsia flexuosa
Flowering Plants Goodyera repens
Mosses & Liverworts Hylocomium splendens
Flowering Plants Ilex aquifolium
Conifers Juniperus communis
Flowering Plants Linnaea borealis
Flowering Plants Listera cordata
Flowering Plants Moneses uniflora
Flowering Plants Orthilia secunda
Conifers Pinus sylvestris var. scotica
Flowering Plants Populus tremula
Flowering Plants Pyrola minor
Flowering Plants Sorbus aucuparia
Flowering Plants Trientalis europaea
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Betula pendula Flowering Plants
Betula pubescens Flowering Plants
Corallorhiza trifida Flowering Plants
Deschampsia flexuosa Flowering Plants
Goodyera repens Flowering Plants
Hylocomium splendens Mosses & Liverworts
Ilex aquifolium Flowering Plants
Juniperus communis Conifers
Linnaea borealis Flowering Plants
Listera cordata Flowering Plants
Moneses uniflora Flowering Plants
Orthilia secunda Flowering Plants
Pinus sylvestris var. scotica Conifers
Populus tremula Flowering Plants
Pyrola minor Flowering Plants
Sorbus aucuparia Flowering Plants
Trientalis europaea Flowering Plants

Other classifications

Not available For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types
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