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Maremma

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Factsheet filled with data from European diploma data set


Site contact authorities

Manager Mr. le Directeur Ento del Parco Naturale della Maremma Aurelia Antica localita Pianacce 5811 Albarese
Information Ento del Parco Naturale della Maremma Aurelia Antica localita Pianacce 5811 Albarese
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Description

General character of the site Coastal area bordering the Tyrrhenian Sea in the province of Grosseto in the Tuscany region; rectangular shape with a length of 25 km. and a maximal width of 7,5 km.; it has an alluvial character in the north and hilly in the centre and south. The plain along the river Ombrone are used for agriculture with scattered settlements. The wetlands near the mouth of the river are bogy and are designated under the Ramsar Convention. The Hilly area is mainly formed by the limestone ridge called "Monti dell'Ucellina". The most southern part is touching the sea with a high and eroding coast. The nature of the hills is mostly calcareous and only partly silicious. 
Quality  
Vulnerability The Grosetto sewage plant operates very unsatisfactorily. Its outlet empties into the Fosso Razzo canal, which joins the Ombrone after crossing the north-west part of the park. The water leaving the sewage plant is of very poor quality. To this can probably be added other sources of pollution in the San Isidoro region, all seriously impairing the quality of the water in the canal.The shore throughout the area covered by the mouth of the Ombrone, as far up as Marina Albarese, has receded markedly in recent decades. Erosion may be due to over-excavation of building material in the upper reaches of the Ombrone. A study - which should be given a new impetus - is being carried out to determine as far as possible the probable causes of erosion and possible measures which might be taken to prevent the situation from further deterioration.The park has adopted very strict measures to limit the number of visitors and to control their access. The system operates very well in respect of the visitors interested in the park's natural and historical wealth. There remains the problem of the use of the Marina di Alberese, which is first and foremost a public beach. Measures to restrict the number of vehicles to 400 a day, and the banning of access by night, already represent satisfactory progress. Nevertheless, approximately 1000 to 1200 visitors a day in the high season represent heavy pressures on the resources of the coast.The park is involved in several hydrological works such as drainage ditches and canals. The authorities are consulted in the event of serious problems of too much or too little water. The relation between quantitave and qualitative water management for agricultural requirements should be correlated with the positive and negative effects on the natural vegetation and wild fauna so as to propose possible adjustments which will reconcile the various interests. 
Designation  
Owner Different ownerships exist. Most of the park used to belong to the War Veterans fund, which has been taken over by the Tuscany Region. The remainder is devided among a few very large private or municipal holdings and approximately a hundred small ownerships. The park has no plans to acquire land. It prefers to act through regulations, so far accepted without too much difficulties, or by direct agreements with the owner concerned. 
Documentation Editori del Grifo (1986), Leggi institutive statuto piano territoriale de coordinamento del Parco Naturale della Maremma, MontepulcianoCouncil of Europe - European Diploma Series (1993), Parc naturel de la Maremma-Italie, Strasbourg, 21 p. 
Habitat types  
Flora  
Fauna  
Potential vegetation  
Geomorphology  
Educational interest Students represent a good half of the visitors to the park. One day trips are considered not to be enough and teachers are not always suited for teaching lessons about the environment, so a series of five days trips for students was organised using guest quarters for housing.The echo and the success of these "ecological weeks" were so big that the Tuscany Region together with the park and the school authorities introduced in its programmes the possibility to follow such a five day trip, paying for them and trying to involve other protected areas in Tuscany.Besides giving hospitality to schools, the Park organizes stages for teachers and distributes didactic materials; it is now working to enlarge its activities in this field, looking for a building suitable to contain at least 3 school trips, or where a permanent centre for environmental didactics can be installed, stages and seminars could be held.All this work will be possible by collecting the materials and information from the research carried out in the park. 
Cultural heritage The earliest traces of human occupation go back to the Upper Palaeolithic, from which time onwards men lived regularly in the region. The Romans left vestiges (remains of the bridge of the Ombrone, a villa near Talamone). Later, benedictine monks and Cistercian monks settled in the region. In the 12th century they built the remarkable abbey-church of San Rabano (formerly Santa Maria Alborense), this was abandoned towards 1500, but impressive ruïns still remain (now being restored).To counter the growing power of Florence, a special network of fortifications was built, and several existing towers were strengthened (Castel Marino, Colelungo, Cala di Forno). A total of some ten ruined towers are still clearly visible in the park and its immediate surroundings.Only part of the cultivated land was planted up when, at the beginning of the 19th century, work began on an operation to develop the marshland of the Alberense region. In the mid 19th century the Grand-Ducal pine forest was planted, covering some 600-700 ha.Improvements in living and farming conditions continued with the draining of the marshes, particularly in connection with a major drainage operation at the beginning of the 1950's. A large part of the humid zones of the Trappola has been left untouched. 
Justification  
Methodology  
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Management plan  
URL official http://www.provincia.grosseto.it/parcodellamaremma/default.htm 
URL interesting http://www.parks.it/parco.maremma/Eindex.html 

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