Kingdom: Animalia > Phylum: Chordata > Class: Aves > Order: Falconiformes > Family: Accipitridae > Genus: Elanus > Species: Elanus caeruleus

Black-shouldered Kite - Elanus caeruleus (Desfontaines, 1789)

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Quick facts

Threat status Europe Least Concern (IUCN)
Protected by EU Birds Directive and 4 other international agreements
Reported as invasive by NOBANIS
Breeding habitats
  • grassland
  • sparsely vegetated land
Natura 2000 species code A399

Distribution

The distribution map is currently disabled. A new map solution will soon become available. In the meantime, please consult other species distribution map providers listed in the Other resources panel below.

Threat and conservation status

IUCN Red List status of threatened species

The IUCN Red List threat status assesses the risk of extinction.

IUCN Red List Category
Not Evaluated
Near Threatened
Regionally Extinct
Not Applicable
Vulnerable
Extinct in the Wild
Data Deficient
Endangered
Extinct
Least Concern
Critically Endangered

EU conservation status

The EU conservation status is assessed for species mentioned in the EU Habitats Directive annexes. The EU Habitats Directive does not cover this species.

Natura 2000 sites

Protected in the following Natura 2000 sites

Sitecode Country Site name Action
ES0000004 Spain LAGUNAS DE VILLAFÁFILA Map
ES0000010 Spain SIERRA DE GUADARRAMA Map
ES0000011 Spain Monte de El Pardo Map
ES0000014 Spain Monfragüe y las Dehesas del Entorno Map
ES0000017 Spain Cuenca de Gallocanta Map
ES0000019 Spain Aiguamolls de l'Alt Empordà Map
ES0000024 Spain Doñana Map
ES0000053 Spain Sierra Norte Map
ES0000068 Spain Embalse de Orellana y Sierra de Pela Map
ES0000069 Spain Embalse de Cornalvo y Sierra Bermeja Map
ES0000070 Spain Sierra de San Pedro Map
ES0000071 Spain Llanos de Cáceres y Sierra de Fuentes Map
ES0000089 Spain Valle del Tiétar y embalses de Rosarito y Navalcán Map
ES0000090 Spain Sierra Morena Map
ES0000093 Spain ZEPA Montes de Toledo Map
ES0000115 Spain HOCES DEL RÍO DURATÓN Map
ES0000116 Spain VALLE DE IRUELAS Map
ES0000118 Spain ARRIBES DEL DUERO Map
ES0000155 Spain Sierras de Almadén - Chillón y Guadalmez Map
ES0000168 Spain Llanuras de Oropesa, Lagartera y Calera y Chozas Map
ES0000184 Spain VALLE DEL TIÉTAR Map
ES0000186 Spain PINARES DEL BAJO ALBERCHE Map
ES0000188 Spain VALLES DEL VOLTOYA Y EL ZORITA Map
ES0000189 Spain CAMPO AZÁLVARO-PINARES DE PEGUERINOS Map
ES0000190 Spain ENCINARES DE LOS RÍOS ADAJA Y VOLTOYA Map
ES0000194 Spain OTEROS-CAMPOS Map
ES0000201 Spain CAMINO DE SANTIAGO Map
ES0000202 Spain CAMPO DE AZABA Map
ES0000204 Spain TIERRA DE CAMPIÑAS Map
ES0000206 Spain CAÑONES DEL DUERO Map
ES0000207 Spain PENILLANURAS-CAMPOS SUR Map
ES0000208 Spain LLANURAS DEL GUAREÑA Map
ES0000209 Spain TIERRA DEL PAN Map
ES0000215 Spain OTEROS-CEA Map
ES0000216 Spain LA NAVA-CAMPOS SUR Map
ES0000217 Spain PENILLANURAS-CAMPOS NORTE Map
ES0000247 Spain RIBERAS DE LOS RÍOS HUEBRA Y YELTES Map
ES0000275 Spain Complejo endorreico Lebrija-Las Cabezas Map
ES0000324 Spain Embalse de Arrocampo Map
ES0000325 Spain Campiña sur - Embalse de Arroyo Conejos Map
ES0000326 Spain Embalse de Borbollón Map
ES0000327 Spain Embalse de los Canchales Map
ES0000329 Spain Embalse de Valdecañas Map
ES0000337 Spain Estrecho Map
ES0000357 Spain ALTOS CAMPOS DE GÓMARA Map
ES0000358 Spain CAMPO DE ALISTE Map
ES0000365 Spain PÁRAMO LEONES Map
ES0000366 Spain VALDERÍA-JAMUZ Map
ES0000367 Spain La Serena y Sierras Periféricas Map
ES0000368 Spain Río Tajo Internacional y Riberos Map
ES0000369 Spain Llanos de Alcantara y Brozas Map
ES0000393 Spain Azud de Badajoz Map
ES0000398 Spain Llanos y Complejo Lagunar de la Albuera Map
ES0000400 Spain Arrozales de Palazuelo y Guadalperales Map
ES0000427 Spain Río y Pinares del Tietar Map
ES0000434 Spain Canchos de Ramiro y Ladronera Map
ES4110002 Spain SIERRA DE GREDOS Map
ES4130024 Spain SIERRA DE LA CABRERA Map
ES4140036 Spain LA NAVA-CAMPOS NORTE Map
ES4150005 Spain LAS BATUECAS-SIERRA DE FRANCIA Map
ES4150006 Spain CANDELARIO Map
ES4150039 Spain QUILAMAS Map
ES4150087 Spain RÍO ÁGUEDA Map
ES4160048 Spain LAGUNAS DE CANTALEJO Map
ES4180017 Spain RIBERAS DE CASTRONUÑO Map
ES4190009 Spain LAGO DE SANABRIA Y ALREDEDORES Map
ES4310004 Spain Dehesas de Jerez Map
ES5120015 Spain Litoral del Baix Empordà Map
ES5130016 Spain Valls del Sió-Llobregós Map
ES5130025 Spain Bellmunt-Almenara Map
ES6120006 Spain Marismas del Río Palmones Map
ES6170015 Spain Lagunas de Campillos Map
ES6180002 Spain Complejo endorreico La Lantejuela Map
PTCON0037 Portugal Monchique Map
PTZPE0007 Portugal Serra da Malcata Map
PTZPE0010 Portugal Estuário do Tejo Map
PTZPE0013 Portugal Lagoa de Santo André Map
PTZPE0038 Portugal Douro Internacional e Vale do Águeda Map
PTZPE0042 Portugal Tejo Internacional, Erges e Pônsul Map
PTZPE0043 Portugal Campo Maior Map
PTZPE0045 Portugal Mourão/Moura/Barrancos Map
PTZPE0046 Portugal Castro Verde Map
PTZPE0047 Portugal Vale do Guadiana Map
ES4190146 Spain LAGUNAS Y PASTIZALES SALINOS DE VILLAFÁFILA Map
ES4310010 Spain La Serena Map
ES4250001 Spain Sierra de San Vicente y valles del Tiétar y Alberche Map
ES4190033 Spain SIERRA DE LA CULEBRA Map
ES4110103 Spain ENCINARES DE LOS RÍOS ADAJA Y VOLTOYA Map
ES4130145 Spain LAGUNAS DE LOS OTEROS Map
ES4320077 Spain Monfragüe Map
ES4150108 Spain QUILAMAS Map
ES4150064 Spain RIBERAS DE LOS RÍOS HUEBRA, YELTES, UCES Y AFLUENTES Map
PTCON0033 Portugal Cabrela Map
ES4160106 Spain LAGUNAS DE CANTALEJO Map
PTCON0004 Portugal Malcata Map
ES3110004 Spain Cuenca del río Manzanares Map
PTCON0034 Portugal Comporta/Galé Map
ES4160109 Spain SIERRA DE GUADARRAMA Map
ES6150010 Spain Andévalo Occidental Map
ES4190105 Spain LAGO DE SANABRIA Y ALREDEDORES Map
ES4150100 Spain CAMPO DE AZABA Map
ES4320002 Spain Cedillo y Río Tajo Internacional Map
ES4160111 Spain VALLES DEL VOLTOYA Y EL ZORITA Map
ES4150101 Spain CANDELARIO Map
PTCON0007 Portugal S. Mamede Map
ES4140136 Spain LAGUNA DE LA NAVA Map
ES4150107 Spain LAS BATUECAS-SIERRA DE FRANCIA Map
ES4190110 Spain SIERRA DE LA CABRERA Map
ES4190102 Spain CAÑONES DEL DUERO Map
PTCON0022 Portugal Douro Internacional Map
PTCON0009 Portugal Estuário do Tejo Map
ES4240023 Spain Lagunas y parameras del Señorío de Molina Map
PTCON0030 Portugal Caia Map
ES6150009 Spain Doñana Norte y Oeste Map
PTCON0029 Portugal Cabeção Map
ES2430043 Spain Laguna de Gallocanta Map
ES4110115 Spain VALLE DEL TIÉTAR Map
ES4110114 Spain PINARES DEL BAJO ALBERCHE Map
ES4110097 Spain CAMPO AZÁLVARO-PINARES DE PEGUERINOS Map
ES4150096 Spain ARRIBES DEL DUERO Map
ES4250005 Spain Montes de Toledo Map
ES6130017 Spain Alto Guadiato Map
ES6180017 Spain Campiñas de Sevilla Map
PTZPE0059 Portugal Torre da Bolsa Map
PTZPE0057 Portugal Cuba Map
PTZPE0054 Portugal São Vicente Map
PTZPE0051 Portugal Monforte Map
PTZPE0053 Portugal Vila Fernando Map
PTZPE0055 Portugal Évora Map
ES0000436 Spain A Limia Map
ES0000477 Spain Bellmunt-Almenara Map
ES0000476 Spain Valls del Sió-Llobregós Map
ES4150127 Spain RIBERAS DEL RÍO ÁGUEDA Map

Protected sites

Please note the site map takes a while to display.

Legal status

Legal text Annex Conditions More information
Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 30 November 2009, on the conservation of wild birds (EU Birds Directive) http://ec.europa.eu/environm...rective/index_en.htm
Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats (Bern Convention) (All species of Falconiformes) http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cul.../bern/default_en.asp
https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc....ckColorLogged=FDC864

Resolution No. 6 (1998) of the Bern Convention lists the species requiring specific habitat conservation measures [and the designation of Areas of Special Conservation Interest (ASCIs) forming for the Emerald network]
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (Falconiformes spp.) http://www.cites.org/eng
Commission regulation (EU) No 1320/2014, of 1 December 2014, amending Council Regulation (EC) No 338/97 on the protection of species of wild fauna and flora by regulating trade therein (EU regulation of trade of fauna and flora) http://ec.europa.eu/environm...s/legislation_en.htm

Common names and synonyms

Common Name Language Reference
Blå glente Danish EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Black-shouldered Kite English EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Black-winged Kite English Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Elanio azul Spanish EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Elanio Común Spanish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Élanion blanc French Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Gleitaar German Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Grijze Wouw Dutch Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Kaniuk Polish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Kuhi Hungarian Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Liitohaukka Finnish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Nibbio bianco Italian Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Peneireiro-cinzento Portuguese Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Svartvingad glada Swedish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
No synonyms available.

Other resources

CoL (accepted name) Catalogue of Life
EBCC Atlas of breeding birds European Bird Census Council's Atlas of Breeding Birds
EURing code:02350 European bird-ringing
EoL Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea Fauna Europaea
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
ITIS (Valid name) Interagency Taxonomic Information System
NCBI search National Center for Biotechnology Information
PESI (Accepted) Pan-European Species directories Infrastructure
Species+ Species+ by UNEP-WCMC
Wikipedia Wikipedia

External data

Population distribution from "Birds in Europe" editions 1 and 2

These publications present a thorough and detailed review of the conservation status of European birds. Based on detailed breeding and wintering population data collected in each country, the report provides a review of the population sizes and trends of Species of European Conservation Concern.

6 items found, displaying all items.1
Country Biogeographic region Min / Max (Units) Period Status Quality Source Published
France 7/7 (pairs) 2000-2002 Breeding Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
France 1/2 (pairs) 1990 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Portugal 300/1000 (pairs) 2002 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Portugal 100/1000 (pairs) 1989 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Spain 500/1000 (pairs) 1998-2002 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Spain 1000/1000 (pairs) - Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Source: BirdLife International

Population trends from "Birds in Europe" editions 1 and 2

These publications present a thorough and detailed review of the conservation status of European birds. Based on detailed breeding and wintering population data collected in each country, the report provides a review of the population sizes and trends of Species of European Conservation Concern.

6 items found, displaying all items.1
Country Biogeographic region Period Status Trend Quality Source Published
France 1990-2000 Breeding Increasing : 80 % Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
France 1970-1990 Breeding New breeder within the period Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Portugal 1990-2000 Breeding Increasing Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Portugal 1970-1990 Breeding Small increase of 20-49% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Spain 1990-2000 Breeding Increasing between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Spain 1970-1990 Breeding Small increase of 20-49% Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Source: BirdLife International

Summary of derogations for species

EU member states are required to report derogations from protection efforts of species.

7 items found, displaying all items.1
Region From Until Justification Activity Impact
Poland 2014-06-01 2015-05-31 It is not possible to determine the number of individuals Capture (ringing) None
Malta 2013-01-01 2013-12-31 Since it was not possible to determine beforehand the number of specimens that would be collected or handed over to the National Museum of Natural History during the year, a limit was not given. Stuffing In view that the specimens in question are already dead due to some other circumstance, the keeping of their bodies would not negatively impact the population.
Malta 2013-01-01 2013-12-31 Since it was not possible to determine beforehand the number of specimens that would be collected or handed over to the National Museum of Natural History during the year, a limit was not given. Keeping for educational and scientific purpose In view that the specimens in question are already dead due to some other circumstance, the keeping of their bodies would not negatively impact the population.
Malta 2013-01-01 2013-12-31 Since it was not possible to determine beforehand the number of specimens that would be collected or handed over to the National Museum of Natural History during the year, a limit was not given. Stuffing In view that the specimens in question are already dead due to some other circumstance, the keeping of their bodies would not negatively impact the population.
Malta 2013-01-01 2013-12-31 Since it was not possible to determine beforehand the number of specimens that would be collected or handed over to the National Museum of Natural History during the year, a limit was not given. Keeping for educational and scientific purpose In view that the specimens in question are already dead due to some other circumstance, the keeping of their bodies would not negatively impact the population.
Malta 2012-01-01 2012-12-31 Since it was not possible to determine beforehand the number of specimens that would be collected or handed over to the National Museum of Natural History during the year, a limit was not given. Stuffing In view that the specimens in question are already dead due to some other circumstance the keeping of their bodies would not negatively impact the population.
Malta 2012-01-01 2012-12-31 Since it was not possible to determine beforehand the number of specimens that would be collected or handed over to the National Museum of Natural History during the year, a limit was not given. Keeping for educational and scientific purpose In view that the specimens in question are already dead due to some other circumstance the keeping of their bodies would not negatively impact the population.
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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Phone: +45 3336 7100