Kingdom: Animalia > Phylum: Chordata > Class: Aves > Order: Passeriformes > Family: Paridae > Genus: Parus > Species: Parus cristatus

Crested Tit - Parus cristatus Linnaeus, 1758

Images from the web

Quick facts

Threat status Europe Not evaluated (IUCN)
Protected by 1 international agreement
Breeding habitats
  • woodland and forest
Natura 2000 species code A327

Distribution

The distribution map is currently disabled. A new map solution will soon become available. In the meantime, please consult other species distribution map providers listed in the Other resources panel below.

Threat and conservation status

IUCN Red List status of threatened species

The IUCN Red List threat status assesses the risk of extinction.

World

Least Concern

Europe

Not evaluated

EU

Not evaluated

IUCN Red List Category
Not Evaluated
Near Threatened
Regionally Extinct
Not Applicable
Vulnerable
Extinct in the Wild
Data Deficient
Endangered
Extinct
Least Concern
Critically Endangered

EU conservation status

The EU conservation status is assessed for species mentioned in the EU Habitats Directive annexes. The EU Habitats Directive does not cover this species.

Natura 2000 sites

Protected in the following Natura 2000 sites

Sitecode Country Site name Action
ES0000024 Spain Doñana Map
ES0000031 Spain Sierra de Grazalema Map
ES0000035 Spain Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas Map
ES0000049 Spain Los Alcornocales Map
ES0000051 Spain Sierra de Aracena y Picos de Aroche Map
ES0000052 Spain Sierra Pelada y Rivera del Aserrador Map
ES0000053 Spain Sierra Norte Map
ES0000143 Spain Marismas de Santoña, Victoria y Joyel y Ría de Ajo Map
ES0000335 Spain Sierras de Peñalsordo y Capilla Map
ES0000355 Spain Hurdes Map
ES1300007 Spain Marismas de Santoña, Victoria y Joyel Map
ES4320039 Spain Sierra de las Villuercas y Valle del Guadarranque Map
ES6110003 Spain Sierra Maria - Los Vélez Map
ES6130002 Spain Sierra Subbética Map
ES6140004 Spain Sierra Nevada Map
ES6170003 Spain Desfiladero de Los Gaitanes Map
ES6170006 Spain Sierra de Las Nieves Map
ES6170007 Spain Sierras de Tejeda, Almijara y Alhama Map
IT1110006 Italy Orsiera Rocciavré Map
IT1110080 Italy Val Troncea Map
IT1160021 Italy Gruppo del Tenibres Map
IT1160056 Italy Alpi Marittime Map
IT1160057 Italy Alte Valli Pesio e Tanaro Map
IT1313712 Italy Cima di Piano Cavallo - Bric Cornia Map
IT1313776 Italy Piancavallo Map
IT1314610 Italy Monte Saccarello - Monte Fronté Map
IT1314611 Italy Monte Gerbonte Map
IT1314679 Italy Toraggio - Gerbonte Map
IT1315380 Italy Testa d'Alpe - Alto Map
IT1315421 Italy Monte Toraggio - Monte Pietravecchia Map
IT1315481 Italy Ceppo Tomena Map
IT1323115 Italy Lago di Osiglia Map
IT1331104 Italy Parco dell'Aveto Map
IT2010003 Italy Versante Nord del Campo dei Fiori Map
IT2010004 Italy Grotte del Campo dei Fiori Map
IT2010009 Italy Sorgenti del Rio Capricciosa Map
IT2010011 Italy Paludi di Arsago Map
IT2010014 Italy Turbigaccio, Boschi di Castelletto e Lanca di Bernate Map
IT2020001 Italy Lago di Piano Map
IT2020002 Italy Sasso Malascarpa Map
IT2020007 Italy Pineta pedemontana di Appiano Gentile Map
IT2020301 Italy Triangolo Lariano Map
IT2020303 Italy Valsolda Map
IT2030001 Italy Grigna Settentrionale Map
IT2030003 Italy Monte Barro Map
IT2030301 Italy Monte Barro Map
IT2040001 Italy Val Viera e Cime di Fopel Map
IT2040003 Italy Val Federia Map
IT2040007 Italy Passo e Monte di Foscagno Map
IT2040011 Italy Monte Vago - Val di Campo - Val Nera Map
IT2040012 Italy Val Viola Bormina - Ghiacciaio di Cima dei Piazzi Map
IT2040016 Italy Monte di Scerscen - Ghiacciai di Scerscen - Monte Motta Map
IT2040017 Italy Disgrazia - Sissone Map
IT2040018 Italy Val Codera Map
IT2040020 Italy Val di Mello - Piano di Preda Rossa Map
IT2040021 Italy Val di Togno - Pizzo Scalino Map
IT2040022 Italy Lago di Mezzola e Pian di Spagna Map
IT2040024 Italy da Monte Belvedere a Vallorda Map
IT2040026 Italy Val Lesina Map
IT2040027 Italy Valle del Bitto di Gerola Map
IT2040028 Italy Valle del Bitto di Albaredo Map
IT2040029 Italy Val Tartano Map
IT2040030 Italy Val Madre Map
IT2040031 Italy Val Cervia Map
IT2040032 Italy Valle del Livrio Map
IT2040034 Italy Valle d'Arigna e Ghiacciaio di Pizzo di Coca Map
IT2040035 Italy Val Bondone - Val Caronella Map
IT2040036 Italy Val Belviso Map
IT2040038 Italy Val Fontana Map
IT2040039 Italy Val Zerta Map
IT2040040 Italy Val Bodengo Map
IT2040044 Italy Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio Map
IT2050005 Italy Boschi della Fagiana Map
IT2060001 Italy Valtorta e Valmoresca Map
IT2060002 Italy Valle di Piazzatorre - Isola di Fondra Map
IT2060003 Italy Alta Val Brembana - Laghi Gemelli Map
IT2060004 Italy Alta Val di Scalve Map
IT2060005 Italy Val Sedornia - Val Zurio - Pizzo della Presolana Map
IT2060006 Italy Boschi del Giovetto di Paline Map
IT2060007 Italy Valle Asinina Map
IT2060008 Italy Valle Parina Map
IT2060009 Italy Val Nossana - Cima di Grem Map
IT2060304 Italy Val di Scalve Map
IT2070001 Italy Torbiere del Tonale Map
IT2070002 Italy Monte Piccolo - Monte Colmo Map
IT2070003 Italy Val Rabbia e Val Galinera Map
IT2070005 Italy Pizzo Badile - Alta Val Zumella Map
IT2070006 Italy Pascoli di Crocedomini - Alta Val Caffaro Map
IT2070010 Italy Piz Olda - Val Malga Map
IT2070012 Italy Torbiere di Val Braone Map
IT2070017 Italy Valli di San Antonio Map
IT2070021 Italy Valvestino Map
IT2070022 Italy Corno della Marogna Map
IT2070023 Italy Belvedere - Tri Plane Map
IT2070301 Italy Foresta di Legnoli Map
IT2070302 Italy Val Caffaro Map
IT2070303 Italy Val Grigna Map
IT2080002 Italy Basso corso e sponde del Ticino Map
IT2080021 Italy Monte Alpe Map
IT2080301 Italy Boschi del Ticino Map
IT3120020 Italy Palu' Longa Map
IT3120031 Italy Masi Carretta Map
IT3120034 Italy Paludi di Sternigo Map
IT3120045 Italy Lagabrun Map
IT3120046 Italy Prati di Monte Map
IT3120061 Italy La Rocchetta Map
IT3120096 Italy Bocca di Caset Map
IT3120109 Italy Valle Flanginech Map
IT3210039 Italy Monte Baldo Ovest Map
IT3210040 Italy Monti Lessini - Pasubio - Piccole Dolomiti Vicentine Map
IT3220036 Italy Altopiano dei Sette Comuni Map
IT3230060 Italy Torbiere di Danta Map
IT3230077 Italy Foresta del Cansiglio Map
IT3230078 Italy Gruppo del Popera - Dolomiti di Auronzo e di Val Comelico Map
IT3230080 Italy Val Talagona - Gruppo Monte Cridola - Monte Duranno Map
IT3230083 Italy Dolomiti Feltrine e Bellunesi Map
IT4010004 Italy Monte Capra, Monte Tre Abati, Monte Armelio, Sant'Agostino, Lago di Averaldi Map
IT4010005 Italy Pietra Parcellara e Pietra Perduca Map
IT4010013 Italy Monte Dego, Monte Veri, Monte delle Tane Map
LU0001002 Luxembourg Vallée de l'Our de Ouren a Wallendorf Pont Map
LU0001007 Luxembourg Vallée supérieure de la Sûre / Lac du barrage Map
LU0002003 Luxembourg Vallée supérieure de l'Our et affluents de Lieler à Dasbourg Map
LU0002004 Luxembourg Vallée supérieure de la Sûre et affluents de la frontière belge à Esch-sur-Sûre Map
IT1315717 Italy Monte Grammondo - Torrente Bevera Map
SKUEV0332 Slovakia Čergov Map
SKUEV0163 Slovakia Rudava Map
IT2040042 Italy Pian di Spagna e Lago di Mezzola Map
SKUEV0198 Slovakia Zvolen Map
SKUEV0169 Slovakia Orlovské vŕšky Map
SKUEV0106 Slovakia Muráň Map
IT2030601 Italy Grigne Map
SKUEV0119 Slovakia Široká Map
SKUEV0166 Slovakia Ciglát Map
SKUEV0287 Slovakia Galmus Map
IT2010401 Italy Parco Regionale Campo dei Fiori Map
ES6110008 Spain Sierras de Gádor y Enix Map
ES6110004 Spain Sierra del Oso Map
SKUEV0172 Slovakia Bežnisko Map
IT2040403 Italy Riserva Regionale Paluaccio di Oga Map
SKUEV0313 Slovakia Devínske jazero Map
IT2040601 Italy Bagni di Masino - Pizzo Badile - Val di Mello - Val Torrone - Piano di Preda Rossa Map
SKUEV0102 Slovakia Čertov Map
IT3341002 Italy Aree Carsiche della Venezia Giulia Map
SKUEV0116 Slovakia Jakubovské rybníky Map
IT2040602 Italy Valle dei Ratti - Cime di Gaiazzo Map
IT1331909 Italy Monte Zatta - Passo Bocco - Passo Chiapparino - Monte Bossea Map
IT1342806 Italy Monte Verruga - Monte Zenone - Roccagrande - Monte Pu Map
IT2040401 Italy Parco Regionale Orobie Valtellinesi Map
SKUEV0299 Slovakia Baranovo Map
SKUEV0171 Slovakia Zelienka Map
SKUEV0226 Slovakia Vanišovec Map
SKUEV0220 Slovakia Šaštínsky potok Map
IT2020010 Italy Lago di Segrino Map
ES6170010 Spain Sierras Bermeja y Real Map
SKUEV0298 Slovakia Brvnište Map
SKUEV0356 Slovakia Horný vrch Map
SKUEV0344 Slovakia Starovodské jedliny Map
SKUEV0197 Slovakia Salatín Map
ES6150010 Spain Andévalo Occidental Map
ES6150012 Spain Dehesa del Estero y Montes de Moguer Map
IT2010019 Italy Monti della Valcuvia Map
IT3321001 Italy Alpi Carniche Map
SKUEV0213 Slovakia Kazarka Map
IT1315407 Italy Monte Ceppo Map
SKUEV0225 Slovakia Muránska planina Map
SKUEV0115 Slovakia Bahno Map
SKUEV0367 Slovakia Holubyho kopanice Map
SKUEV0219 Slovakia Malina Map
IT2070401 Italy Parco Naturale Adamello Map
SKUEV0204 Slovakia Homoľa Map
SKUEV0399 Slovakia Bacúšska jelšina Map
IT2070402 Italy Alto Garda Bresciano Map
IT3230089 Italy Dolomiti del Cadore e del Comelico Map
SKUEV0179 Slovakia Červený rybník Map
IT2020011 Italy Spina verde Map
SKUEV0283 Slovakia Lúky pod Besníkom Map
SKUEV0302 Slovakia Ďumbierske Tatry Map
SKUEV0123 Slovakia Dúbrava Map
SKUEV0378 Slovakia Nebrová Map
ES6140006 Spain Sierra de Arana Map
IT1323201 Italy Finalese - Capo Noli Map
SKUEV0316 Slovakia Šranecké piesky Map
SKUEV0120 Slovakia Jasenácke Map
IT1331402 Italy Beigua - Monte Dente - Gargassa - Pavaglione Map
IT2060016 Italy Valpredina e Misma Map
SKUEV0170 Slovakia Mešterova lúka Map
ES6170011 Spain Sierra Blanca Map
SKUEV0117 Slovakia Abrod Map
SKUEV0167 Slovakia Bezodné Map
IT2060401 Italy Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche Map
SKUEV0203 Slovakia Stolica Map
SKUEV0058 Slovakia Tlstá Map
IT1324011 Italy Monte Ravinet - Rocca Barbena Map
IT1315313 Italy Gouta - Testa d'Alpe - Valle Barbaira Map
SKUEV0162 Slovakia Grgás Map
IT1315806 Italy Monte Nero - Monte Bignone Map
SKUEV0331 Slovakia Čergovský Minčol Map
ES6140001 Spain Sierra de Baza Map
SKUEV0101 Slovakia Klokočovské rašeliniská Map
SKUEV0281 Slovakia Tŕstie Map
SKUEV0121 Slovakia Marhecké rybníky Map
IT1331501 Italy Praglia - Pracaban - Monte Leco - Punta Martin Map
SKUEV0348 Slovakia Čierna Moldava Map
SKUEV0200 Slovakia Klenovský Vepor Map
SKUEV0173 Slovakia Kotlina Map
IT3230090 Italy Cima Campo - Monte Celado Map
IT5130009 Italy Tre Limentre - Reno Map
ROSPA0133 Romania Munţii Călimani Map
ROSPA0141 Romania Subcarpaţii Vrancei Map
ROSPA0129 Romania Masivul Ceahlau Map
IT4050032 Italy Monte dei Cucchi, Pian di Balestra Map
LU0002013 Luxembourg Région du Kiischpelt Map

Protected sites

Please note the site map takes a while to display.

Legal status

Legal text Annex Conditions More information
Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats (Bern Convention) (All species of Paridae) http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cul.../bern/default_en.asp

Common names and synonyms

Common Name Language Reference
Búbos cinege Hungarian Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Chapim-de-poupa Portuguese Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Cincia dal ciuffo Italian Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Crested Tit English Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Czubatka Polish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Haubenmeise German Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Herrerillo Capuchino Spanish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Kuifmees Dutch Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Mésange huppée French Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Tofsmes Swedish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Töyhtötiainen Finnish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
No synonyms available.

Other resources

EBCC Atlas of breeding birds European Bird Census Council's Atlas of Breeding Birds
EURing code:14540 European bird-ringing
Fauna Europaea Fauna Europaea
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
ITIS search Interagency Taxonomic Information System
NCBI search National Center for Biotechnology Information
PESI (Accepted) Pan-European Species directories Infrastructure
Wikipedia Wikipedia

External data

Population distribution from "Birds in Europe" editions 1 and 2

These publications present a thorough and detailed review of the conservation status of European birds. Based on detailed breeding and wintering population data collected in each country, the report provides a review of the population sizes and trends of Species of European Conservation Concern.

50 items found, displaying all items.1
Country Biogeographic region Min / Max (Units) Period Status Quality Source Published
Albania 1000/3000 (pairs) 2002 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Andorra 1000/3000 (pairs) 1999-2001 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Austria 150000/300000 (pairs) 1998-2002 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Belarus 200000/350000 (pairs) 1997-2002 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Belarus 640000/660000 (pairs) 1990 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Belgium 10000/19999 (pairs) 2001-2002 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Bosnia and Herzegovina Present/Present (pairs) 1990-2003 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Bulgaria 7500/15000 (pairs) 1996-2002 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Croatia 500/1000 (pairs) 2002 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Croatia 500/1000 (individuals) 2002 Wintering Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Czech Republic 80000/160000 (pairs) 2000 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Czech Republic Continental 80000/160000 (pairs) - Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Denmark 20000/30000 (pairs) 2000 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Estonia 20000/50000 (pairs) 1998 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Estonia 40000/150000 (individuals) 1998 Wintering Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Finland 200000/400000 (pairs) 1998-2002 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
France 200000/1000000 (pairs) 1998-2002 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Germany 200000/450000 (pairs) 1995-1999 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Germany 200000/500000 (pairs) - Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Greece 2000/5000 (pairs) 1995-2000 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Greece 5000/10000 (individuals) 1995-2000 Wintering Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Hungary 3500/5000 (pairs) 1990-1993 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Italy 20000/40000 (pairs) 2003 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Latvia 300000/370000 (pairs) 1990-2000 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Latvia Boreal 300000/370000 (pairs) - Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Liechtenstein 500/700 (pairs) 1998-2000 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Liechtenstein 1000/1500 (individuals) 1998-2000 Wintering Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Lithuania 200000/400000 (pairs) 1999-2001 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Luxembourg 2500/3000 (pairs) 2002 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Macedonia (FYR) 1000/2499 (pairs) 1990-2000 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Netherlands 20000/30000 (pairs) 1998-2000 Breeding Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Norway 50000/200000 (pairs) 1990-2003 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Poland 100000/200000 (pairs) 2000-2002 Breeding Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Portugal 50000/500000 (pairs) 2002 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Portugal 100000/1000000 (pairs) 1989 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Romania 1000/1500 (individuals) 1990-2000 Wintering Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Romania 450000/600000 (pairs) 2000-2002 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Russian Federation 2500000/4500000 (pairs) 1990-2000 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Russian Federation 1000000/10000000 (pairs) - Breeding Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Serbia and Montenegro 3500/6500 (pairs) 1990-2002 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Slovakia 25000/50000 (pairs) 1990-1999 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Slovakia 80000/150000 (individuals) 1990-1999 Wintering Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Slovenia 50000/100000 (pairs) 2000 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Spain 860000/1500000 (pairs) 1992 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Spain 860000/1500000 (pairs) - Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Sweden 150000/500000 (pairs) 1999-2000 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Sweden 150000/500000 (pairs) 1987 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Switzerland 120000/160000 (pairs) 1993-1996 Breeding Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Ukraine 75000/95000 (pairs) 1990-2000 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
United Kingdom 2400/2400 (pairs) 1995 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Source: BirdLife International

Population trends from "Birds in Europe" editions 1 and 2

These publications present a thorough and detailed review of the conservation status of European birds. Based on detailed breeding and wintering population data collected in each country, the report provides a review of the population sizes and trends of Species of European Conservation Concern.

50 items found, displaying all items.1
Country Biogeographic region Period Status Trend Quality Source Published
Albania 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Andorra 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Austria 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Belarus 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Belarus 1970-1990 Breeding Stable, or change of less than 20% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Belgium 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1990-2000 Breeding Unknown Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Bulgaria 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 9% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Croatia 1990-2000 Breeding Decreasing between 30% to 49% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Croatia 1990-2000 Wintering Decreasing between 30% to 49% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Czech Republic 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Czech Republic Continental 1970-1990 Breeding Small decrease of 20-49% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Denmark 1990-2000 Breeding Decreasing between 20% to 29% Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Estonia 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Estonia 1990-2000 Wintering Stable between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Finland 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
France 1990-2000 Breeding Decreasing : 27 % Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Germany 1990-2000 Breeding Increasing between 0% to 19% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Germany 1970-1990 Breeding Stable, or change of less than 20% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Greece 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Greece 1990-2000 Wintering Unknown Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Hungary 1990-2000 Breeding Increasing between 50% to 79% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Italy 1990-2000 Breeding Increasing between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Latvia 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Latvia Boreal 1970-1990 Breeding Stable, or change of less than 20% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Liechtenstein 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Liechtenstein 1990-2000 Wintering Stable between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Lithuania 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Luxembourg 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Macedonia (FYR) 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Netherlands 1990-2000 Breeding Fluctuating : 23 % Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Norway 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Poland 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Portugal 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Portugal 1970-1990 Breeding Stable, or change of less than 20% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Romania 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Romania 1990-2000 Wintering Stable between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Russian Federation 1990-2000 Breeding Decreasing between 20% to 29% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Russian Federation 1970-1990 Breeding Stable, or change of less than 20% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Serbia and Montenegro 1990-2000 Breeding Increasing between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Slovakia 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Slovakia 1990-2000 Wintering Unknown Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Slovenia 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Spain 1990-2000 Breeding Unknown Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Spain 1970-1990 Breeding Small increase of 20-49% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Sweden 1990-2000 Breeding Decreasing : 16 % Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Sweden 1970-1990 Breeding Small decrease of 20-49% Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Switzerland 1990-2000 Breeding Increasing between 0% to 9% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Ukraine 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
United Kingdom 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Source: BirdLife International

Reportnet deliveries

Files delivered through Reportnet with relevance to this species.

37 items found, displaying all items.1
Released Coverage Envelope File
2016-11-18 Czech Republic Report according to Art. 9.3 of the Birds Directive - CZ 2015 CZ_report_2015BD
2016-02-25 Germany Birds Derogation 2014 Birds_2014_GER.xml
2015-12-15 France France reporting Birds Directive 2013 corrected DREAL Poitou Charentes
2015-12-11 France France reporting Birds Directive corrected files Alsace
2015-12-11 France France reporting Birds Directive corrected files Auvergne
2015-12-11 France France reporting Birds Directive corrected files Lorraine
2015-12-11 France France reporting Birds Directive corrected files PACA
2015-12-11 France France reporting Birds Directive corrected files Picardie
2015-12-11 France France reporting Birds Directive corrected files Poitou Charentes
2015-12-11 France France reporting Habitas Directive 2014 corrected files Auvergne
2015-12-11 France France reporting Habitas Directive 2014 corrected files Franche Comté
2015-12-11 France France reporting Habitas Directive 2014 corrected files Poitou Charentes
2015-10-09 Czech Republic Report according to Art. 9.3 of the Birds Directive - CZ 2014 Report according to Art. 9.3 of the Birds Directive - CZ 2014
2015-09-30 Poland National Report on Derogation under the Birds Directive 2014 birds_directive_2014
2015-09-17 France France rapport art 9 directive oiseaux 79/409/CEE année 2012 AQUITAINE-habides_export_oiseaux.xml
2015-09-17 France France rapport art 9 directive oiseaux 79/409/CEE année 2012 FRANCHE-COMTE_habides_bird_2012.xml
2015-09-17 France France rapport art 9 directive oiseaux 79/409/CEE année 2012 LORRAINE_Birds.xml
2015-09-17 France France rapport art 9 directive oiseaux 79/409/CEE année 2012 MIDI-PYRENEES_habides_export-dirBirds.xml
2015-09-17 France France rapport art 9 directive oiseaux 79/409/CEE année 2012 PICARDIE-birds-local_database.xml
2015-03-26 Spain Bird derogations for Spain 2013 Birds Spain 2013
2015-03-19 Germany Birds Derogation 2011 Germany Birds_2011_GER.xml
2015-02-24 Germany Birds Derogation 2013 Germany Birds_2013_GER.xml
2015-01-27 Portugal BIRDS 2013 PT BIRDS 2013 PT
2015-01-15 Germany Birds Derogation 2012 Germany Birds Derogation 2012 Germany
2014-12-09 Bulgaria BG-NR under Bird Directive 2013 BG-NReport under Bird Directive 2013
2014-09-22 Latvia birds_2013 National_Report_on_Derogations_under_the_Birds_Directive__1.xml
2013-12-18 Bulgaria BG-NR under Bird Directive 2012 BG-NR under Bird Directive 2012
2013-10-11 Finland Bird2012 FI_bird_report_2012.xml
2013-10-01 Latvia Birds_2012 questionnaire_habides.xml
2012-10-16 Bulgaria National Report on Derogations under Bird Directive 2011 BG_Derogations under Bird Directive 2011
2012-01-10 Bulgaria National Report on Derogations under Bird Directive 2010 Bird Directiv Report 2010
2011-11-11 United Kingdom Directive 2009/147/EC: Derogation under Article 9: Report by the UK for 2010 SNH contribution to 2009/147/EC Article 9 UK Report
2011-06-03 Finland Bird 2009 FI_bird_rap_2009.xml
2011-01-13 Finland BIRD 2008 FI Report 2008
2010-12-10 Belgium Derogations Belgium 2007-2008 derogations2007_VL.xml
2010-10-14 Bulgaria Report Birds Directives 2009 Report Birds Directives 2009
2010-01-10 Bulgaria Report Habitat and Birds Directives 2007 - 2008 Derogations Habitat and Birds Directives 2007 - 2008

Summary of derogations for species

EU member states are required to report derogations from protection efforts of species.

64 items found, displaying all items.1
Region From Until Justification Activity Impact
Praha 2015-05-01 2020-12-31 není možno dopředu určit, kolika jedinců se bude výzkum týkat (stanoveny maximální povolené počty jedinců - viz poznámka níže)) Úmyslné vyrušování v období výchovy mláďat Jelikož ptáci budou po odebrání příslušných vzorků a po potřebných měřeních vypouštěni neprodleně zpět do volné přírody či navraceni do hnízd, nedojde v žádném případě k negativnímu dopadu na stav jakéhokoliv z výše uvedených druhů z hlediska jejich ochrany, neboť počet jedinců daných druhů se nezmění a minimalizací času, po který bude každý jedinec držen, dojde i k minimalizaci stresu a tudíž možných negativních dopadů.
Praha 2015-05-01 2020-12-31 není možno dopředu určit, kolika jedinců se bude výzkum týkat (stanoveny maximální povolené počty jedinců - viz poznámka níže)) Držení v zajetí Jelikož ptáci budou po odebrání příslušných vzorků a po potřebných měřeních vypouštěni neprodleně zpět do volné přírody či navraceni do hnízd, nedojde v žádném případě k negativnímu dopadu na stav jakéhokoliv z výše uvedených druhů z hlediska jejich ochrany, neboť počet jedinců daných druhů se nezmění a minimalizací času, po který bude každý jedinec držen, dojde i k minimalizaci stresu a tudíž možných negativních dopadů.
Praha 2015-05-01 2020-12-31 není možno dopředu určit, kolika jedinců se bude výzkum týkat (stanoveny maximální povolené počty jedinců - viz poznámka níže)) Úmyslné vyrušování Jelikož ptáci budou po odebrání příslušných vzorků a po potřebných měřeních vypouštěni neprodleně zpět do volné přírody či navraceni do hnízd, nedojde v žádném případě k negativnímu dopadu na stav jakéhokoliv z výše uvedených druhů z hlediska jejich ochrany, neboť počet jedinců daných druhů se nezmění a minimalizací času, po který bude každý jedinec držen, dojde i k minimalizaci stresu a tudíž možných negativních dopadů.
Praha 2015-05-01 2020-12-31 není možno dopředu určit, kolika jedinců se bude výzkum týkat (stanoveny maximální povolené počty jedinců - viz poznámka níže)) Odchyt /lov se sítí Jelikož ptáci budou po odebrání příslušných vzorků a po potřebných měřeních vypouštěni neprodleně zpět do volné přírody či navraceni do hnízd, nedojde v žádném případě k negativnímu dopadu na stav jakéhokoliv z výše uvedených druhů z hlediska jejich ochrany, neboť počet jedinců daných druhů se nezmění a minimalizací času, po který bude každý jedinec držen, dojde i k minimalizaci stresu a tudíž možných negativních dopadů.
Severovýchod 2014-04-08 2023-12-31 nelze předem určit počty dotčených jedinců Odchyt (kroužkování) pozitivní
Severovýchod 2014-04-08 2023-12-31 nelze předem určit počty dotčených jedinců Úmyslné vyrušování v období rozmnožování pozitivní
Severovýchod 2014-04-08 2023-12-31 nelze předem určit počty dotčených jedinců Úmyslné vyrušování v období výchovy mláďat pozitivní
Severovýchod 2014-03-07 2018-12-31 nelze předem určit počty dotčených jedinců Odchyt (kroužkování) pozitivní
Severovýchod 2014-03-07 2018-12-31 nelze předem určit počty dotčených jedinců Úmyslné vyrušování v období rozmnožování pozitivní
Severovýchod 2014-03-07 2018-12-31 nelze předem určit počty dotčených jedinců Úmyslné vyrušování v období výchovy mláďat pozitivní
Bulgaria 2013-05-22 2014-12-31 The number of bird is not specified taking into account the unpredictable number of caught individuals. Capture (ringing) No impact
Lubuskie 2013-02-19 2015-12-31 Number of individuals impossible to define for disturbance. Deliberate disturbance, scaring away no impact on Populations.
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2013-01-01 2013-31-12 keine Vogaben Fang zur Beringung keine
Thüringen 2013-01-01 2013-12-31 Anzahl war voher nicht abschätzbar Fang zur Beringung keine Auswirkungen
Bulgaria 2012-03-15 2013-12-31 The permit allows 100 individuals from each bird species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) No impact
Bulgaria 2012-03-15 2013-12-31 The permit allows 100 individuals from each bird species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) No impact
Severoiztochen 2012-03-01 2013-10-31 The permit allows 80 specimens from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) No impact
Severoiztochen 2012-03-01 2013-10-31 The permit allows 80 specimens from each species to be caught and ringed. Keeping in captivity No impact
Yugoiztochen 2012-03-01 2013-10-31 The permit allows 80 specimens from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) No impact
Yugoiztochen 2012-03-01 2013-10-31 The permit allows 80 specimens from each species to be caught and ringed. Keeping in captivity No impact
Severoiztochen 2012-03-01 2013-10-31 The permit allows 80 specimens from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) No impact
Severoiztochen 2012-03-01 2013-10-31 The permit allows 80 specimens from each species to be caught and ringed. Keeping in captivity No impact
Yugoiztochen 2012-03-01 2013-10-31 The permit allows 80 specimens from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) No impact
Yugoiztochen 2012-03-01 2013-10-31 The permit allows 80 specimens from each species to be caught and ringed. Keeping in captivity No impact
Severoiztochen 2012-03-01 2013-10-31 The permit allows 80 specimens from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) No impact
Severoiztochen 2012-03-01 2013-10-31 The permit allows 80 specimens from each species to be caught and ringed. Keeping in captivity No impact
Yugoiztochen 2012-03-01 2013-10-31 The permit allows 80 specimens from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) No impact
Yugoiztochen 2012-03-01 2013-10-31 The permit allows 80 specimens from each species to be caught and ringed. Keeping in captivity No impact
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2012-01-01 2012-12-31 Es werden nur in Ausnahmefällen Genhmigungen zur Vogelberingung ausgegeben, in denen die zu beringenden Arten und Zahlen explizit aufgelistet sind. Die zu beringenden Arten werden in Projekten der Behörden für die Umweltbeobachtung und der Verbände festgelegt. Fang zur Beringung keine
Severoiztochen 2010-03-01 2011-12-31 The permit allows 80 individuals from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) no impact
Yugoiztochen 2010-03-01 2011-12-31 The permit allows 80 individuals from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) no impact
Yuzhen tsentralen 2010-03-01 2011-12-31 The permit allows 80 individuals from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) no impact
Bulgaria 2010-03-01 2011-12-31 The permit allows 100 individuals from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) no impact
Severoiztochen 2010-03-01 2011-12-31 The permit allows 80 individuals from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) no impact
Yugoiztochen 2010-03-01 2011-12-31 The permit allows 80 individuals from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) no impact
Yuzhen tsentralen 2010-03-01 2011-12-31 The permit allows 80 individuals from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) no impact
Bulgaria 2010-03-01 2011-12-31 The permit allows 100 individuals from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) no impact
Severen tsentralen 2009-06-08 2010-12-31 The permit allows 10 individuals from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) no impact
Severoiztochen 2009-06-08 2010-12-31 The permit allows 10 individuals from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) no impact
Yugoiztochen 2009-06-08 2010-12-31 The permit allows 10 individuals from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) no impact
Yugozapaden 2009-06-08 2010-12-31 The permit allows 10 individuals from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) no impact
Yuzhen tsentralen 2009-06-08 2010-12-31 The permit allows 10 individuals from each species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) no impact
Pohjois-Suomi 2008-10-01 2012-12-31 Rengastusta varten pyydystettävien yksilöiden määrää on mahdontonta arvioida etukäteen Capture (ringing) Ei vaikutusta
Pohjois-Suomi 2008-10-01 2012-12-31 Rengastusta varten pyydystettävien yksilöiden määrää on mahdontonta arvioida etukäteen Capture (ringing) Ei vaikutusta
Severen tsentralen 2008-04-30 2008-12-31 Scientific researches. Capture (ringing) No impact
Severoiztochen 2008-04-30 2008-12-31 Scientific researches. Capture (ringing) No impact
Yugoiztochen 2008-04-30 2008-12-31 Scientific researches. Capture (ringing) No impact
Yugozapaden 2008-04-30 2008-12-31 Scientific researches. Capture (ringing) No impact
Yuzhen tsentralen 2008-04-30 2008-12-31 Scientific researches. Capture (ringing) No impact
Yugoiztochen 2008-04-01 2008-12-31 Scientific researches on the migration of birds. Capture (ringing) No impact
Yugozapaden 2008-04-01 2008-12-31 Scientific researches on the migration of birds. Capture (ringing) No impact
Yuzhen tsentralen 2008-04-01 2008-12-31 Scientific researches on the migration of birds. Capture (ringing) No impact
Thüringen 2005-03-04 2014-04-30 alle gefangenen Vögel werden beringt Fang zur Beringung keine
Thüringen 2005-03-04 2014-04-30 alle gefangenen Vögel werden beringt Fang zur Beringung keine
Thüringen 2005-03-04 2014-04-30 alle gefangenen Vögel werden beringt Fang zur Beringung keine
Thüringen 2005-03-04 2014-04-30 alle gefangenen Vögel werden beringt Fang zur Beringung keine
Germany 2005-03-04 2011-12-31 vor Fang keine exakte Anzahl möglich Fang zur Beringung keine, da nur kurze Entnahme
Thüringen 2005-03-04 2011-12-31 vor Fang keine exakte Anzahl möglich Fang zur Beringung keine, da nur kurze Entnahme
Germany 2005-03-04 2011-12-31 vor Fang keine exakte Anzahl möglich Fang zur Beringung keine, da nur kurze Entnahme
Thüringen 2005-03-04 2011-12-31 vor Fang keine exakte Anzahl möglich Fang zur Beringung keine, da nur kurze Entnahme
Germany 2005-03-04 2011-12-31 vor Fang keine exakte Anzahl möglich Fang zur Beringung keine, da nur kurze Entnahme
Thüringen 2005-03-04 2011-12-31 vor Fang keine exakte Anzahl möglich Fang zur Beringung keine, da nur kurze Entnahme
Germany 2005-03-04 2011-12-31 vor Fang keine exakte Anzahl möglich Fang zur Beringung keine, da nur kurze Entnahme
Thüringen 2005-03-04 2011-12-31 vor Fang keine exakte Anzahl möglich Fang zur Beringung keine, da nur kurze Entnahme
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100