Kingdom: Animalia > Phylum: Chordata > Class: Aves > Order: Charadriiformes > Family: Sternidae > Genus: Sterna > Species: Sterna caspia

Caspian Tern - Sterna caspia Pallas, 1770

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Quick facts

Threat status Europe Least Concern (IUCN)
Protected by EU Birds Directive and 5 other international agreements
Natura 2000 species code A190

Distribution

The distribution map is currently disabled. A new map solution will soon become available. In the meantime, please consult other species distribution map providers listed in the Other resources panel below.

Threat and conservation status

IUCN Red List status of threatened species

The IUCN Red List threat status assesses the risk of extinction.

IUCN Red List Category
Not Evaluated
Near Threatened
Regionally Extinct
Not Applicable
Vulnerable
Extinct in the Wild
Data Deficient
Endangered
Extinct
Least Concern
Critically Endangered

EU conservation status

The EU conservation status is assessed for species mentioned in the EU Habitats Directive annexes. The EU Habitats Directive does not cover this species.

Natura 2000 sites

Protected in the following Natura 2000 sites

Sitecode Country Site name Action
BE2501033 Belgium Het Zwin Map
DE2948401 Germany Schorfheide-Chorin Map
DE2951401 Germany Unteres Odertal Map
DE3339402 Germany Niederung der Unteren Havel Map
DE3642401 Germany Rietzer See Map
DE5511401 Germany Engerser Feld Map
DE6316401 Germany Lampertheimer Altrhein Map
DK002X110 Denmark Saltholm og omliggende hav Map
EE0040001 Estonia Väinamere Map
EE0040412 Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare Map
EE0040434 Estonia Kura kurgu Map
EE0040441 Estonia Kaugatoma-Lõu Map
EE0040469 Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare Map
ES0000019 Spain Aiguamolls de l'Alt Empordà Map
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ES0000025 Spain Marismas del Odiel Map
ES0000140 Spain Bahía de Cádiz Map
ES0000144 Spain Urdaibaiko itsasadarra / Ría de Urdaibai Map
ES0000146 Spain Delta del Llobregat Map
ES2130005 Spain Gaztelugatxeko Doniene / San Juan de Gaztelugatx Map
ES2130007 Spain Urdaibaiko itsasertzak eta padurak / Zonas litorales y marismas de Urdaibai Map
ES4140036 Spain LA NAVA-CAMPOS NORTE Map
ES5120015 Spain Litoral del Baix Empordà Map
ES6120006 Spain Marismas del Río Palmones Map
ES6150003 Spain Estero de Domingo Rubio Map
ES6150005 Spain Marismas de Isla Cristina Map
ES6150006 Spain Marismas del Río Piedras y Flecha del Rompido Map
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Protected sites

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Legal status

Legal text Annex Conditions More information
Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 30 November 2009, on the conservation of wild birds (EU Birds Directive) (Sterna caspia) http://ec.europa.eu/environm...rective/index_en.htm
Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats (Bern Convention) http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cul.../bern/default_en.asp
https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc....ckColorLogged=FDC864

Resolution No. 6 (1998) of the Bern Convention lists the species requiring specific habitat conservation measures [and the designation of Areas of Special Conservation Interest (ASCIs) forming for the Emerald network]
Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. (Bonn Convention) (Sterna caspia) West Eurasian and African populations (the synonym name Sterna caspia appears in the document) http://www.cms.int/
Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds. Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals. (AEWA) (Sterna caspia) http://www.migratoryspecies....ent/about-cms-family

http://www.unep-aewa.org/en/legalinstrument/aewa
Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (Helsinki Convention) http://www.helcom.fi/action-areas/species-and-habitats

Common names and synonyms

Common Name Language Reference
Caspian Tern English Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Gaivina-de-bico-vermelho Portuguese Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Lócsér Hungarian Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Pagaza Piquirroja Spanish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Raubseeschwalbe German Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Räyskä Finnish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Reuzenstern Dutch Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Rondine di mare maggiore Italian EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Rovterne Danish EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Rybák velkozobý Czech Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Rybitwa wielkodzioba Polish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Skräntärna Swedish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Sterna maggiore Italian Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Sterne caspienne French Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Synonym Author
Hydroprogne caspia Lepechin, 1770
Hydroprogne tschegrava (Lepechin, 1770)
Hydropogne tschegrava Lepechin, 1770

Other resources

CoL (accepted name) Catalogue of Life
EBCC Atlas of breeding birds European Bird Census Council's Atlas of Breeding Birds
EURing code:06060 European bird-ringing
EoL Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea Fauna Europaea
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
ITIS (invalid) Interagency Taxonomic Information System
NCBI search National Center for Biotechnology Information
PESI (Accepted) Pan-European Species directories Infrastructure
Wikipedia Wikipedia
WoRMS World Register of Marine Species

External data

Population distribution from "Birds in Europe" editions 1 and 2

These publications present a thorough and detailed review of the conservation status of European birds. Based on detailed breeding and wintering population data collected in each country, the report provides a review of the population sizes and trends of Species of European Conservation Concern.

20 items found, displaying all items.1
Country Biogeographic region Min / Max (Units) Period Status Quality Source Published
Albania 0/24 (individuals) 1995-2002 Wintering Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Azerbaijan 50/250 (pairs) 1996-2000 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Estonia 250/400 (pairs) 1998 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Estonia Boreal 250/250 (pairs) 1993 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Finland 800/900 (pairs) 2000-2001 Breeding Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Finland 700/750 (pairs) 1992 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Germany 0/2 (pairs) 1995-1999 Breeding Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Greece 10/18 (individuals) 1995-1999 Wintering Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Italy 0/4 (individuals) 2002 Wintering Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Portugal Present/Present (individuals) 2002 Wintering Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Russian Federation 2000/5500 (pairs) 1990-2002 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Russian Federation 3000/5500 (pairs) 1984-1988 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Spain 1/1 (pairs) 1989 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Sweden 450/470 (pairs) 1999-2000 Breeding Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Sweden 500/600 (pairs) 1987 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Turkey 10/20 (individuals) 1991-2001 Wintering Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Turkey 300/600 (pairs) 2001 Breeding Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Turkey 50/200 (pairs) - Breeding Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Ukraine 800/1200 (pairs) 1990-2000 Breeding Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Ukraine 250/800 (pairs) 1986 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994-01-01
Source: BirdLife International

Population trends from "Birds in Europe" editions 1 and 2

These publications present a thorough and detailed review of the conservation status of European birds. Based on detailed breeding and wintering population data collected in each country, the report provides a review of the population sizes and trends of Species of European Conservation Concern.

20 items found, displaying all items.1
Country Biogeographic region Period Status Trend Quality Source Published
Albania 1990-2000 Wintering Decreasing between 50% to 79% Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Azerbaijan 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Estonia 1990-2000 Breeding Decreasing between 20% to 29% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Estonia Boreal 1970-1990 Breeding Stable, or change of less than 20% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Finland 1990-2000 Breeding Increasing : 20 % Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Finland 1970-1990 Breeding Small decrease of 20-49% Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Germany 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Greece 1990-2000 Wintering Fluctuating between 30% to 49% Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Italy 1990-2000 Wintering Unknown Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Portugal 1990-2000 Wintering Unknown Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Russian Federation 1990-2000 Breeding Increasing between 20% to 29% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Russian Federation 1970-1990 Breeding Small decrease of 20-49% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Spain 1970-1990 Breeding New breeder within the period Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Sweden 1990-2000 Breeding Fluctuating between 20% to 29% Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Sweden 1970-1990 Breeding Small decrease of 20-49% Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Turkey 1990-2000 Breeding Increasing between 20% to 29% Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Turkey 1990-2000 Wintering Stable between 0% to 19% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Turkey 1970-1990 Breeding Small decrease of 20-49% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Ukraine 1990-2000 Breeding Decreasing between 0% to 9% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Ukraine 1970-1990 Breeding Small decrease of 20-49% Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 1 (1970-1990) 1994
Source: BirdLife International

Reportnet deliveries

Files delivered through Reportnet with relevance to this species.

19 items found, displaying all items.1
Released Coverage Envelope File
2015-12-10 France France reporting Birds Directive corrected files Alsace
2015-12-10 France France reporting Birds Directive corrected files Lorraine
2015-12-10 France France reporting Birds Directive corrected files PACA
2015-12-10 France France reporting Habitas Directive 2014 corrected files Auvergne
2015-10-02 Finland Bird 2014 FI_Bird_Report_2014.xml
2015-09-17 France France rapport art 9 directive oiseaux 79/409/CEE année 2012 NORD_PAS_DE_CALAIS_birds_habides_export.xml
2015-04-24 Malta Birds Derogation Report - Malta - 2014 MALTA-Habides_Export_Birds-2014
2014-12-08 Bulgaria BG-NR under Bird Directive 2013 BG-NReport under Bird Directive 2013
2014-09-30 Finland Bird 2013 FI_bird_report_2013
2014-05-29 Malta Birds Derogation Report - Malta - 2013 MALTA-Habides_Export_Birds-2013
2013-12-19 Sweden National reports on derogations under the Birds directive (Art 9) 2012 - Sweden Art 9 Birds Directive 2012_SE
2013-12-17 Bulgaria BG-NR under Bird Directive 2012 BG-NR under Bird Directive 2012
2013-12-09 Portugal PT_Birds_2012.xml PT_Birds_2012
2013-01-03 Finland Bird2011 FI_bird_report_2011.xml
2012-05-03 Denmark 2009 Danish national derogation reports under Art. 9.3 of the EU Birds Directive questionnaire_habides.xml
2011-10-17 Poland National Report on Derogations under the Birds and Habitats Directives (2009-2010) birds derogations
2011-01-12 Finland BIRD 2008 FI Report 2008
2010-12-20 Denmark Derogations 2009 questionnaire_habides.xml
2010-12-09 Belgium Derogations Belgium 2007-2008 derogations2007_VL.xml

Summary of derogations for species

EU member states are required to report derogations from protection efforts of species.

15 items found, displaying all items.1
Region From Until Justification Activity Impact
Åland 2013-06-03 2017-12-31 Ett tillstånd beviljat. Det är inte möjligt att veta i förhand hur många fåglar kommer att ringmärkas Fånga (ringmärkning) Ingen påverkan
Pohjois-Suomi 2013-05-01 2017-12-31 Pyydystettävien yksilöiden määrää ei ole mahdollista ennalta määritellä Capture (ringing) Ennalta arvioituna pyydystämisellä ei ole haitallisia populaatiotason vaiktuksia kohteena oleviin lajeihin
Pohjois-Suomi 2013-05-01 2017-12-31 Pyydystettävien yksilöiden määrää ei ole mahdollista ennalta määritellä Capture (ringing) Ennalta arvioituna pyydystämisellä ei ole haitallisia populaatiotason vaiktuksia kohteena oleviin lajeihin
Pohjois-Suomi 2013-03-10 2017-12-31 Pyydystettävien yksilöiden määrää ei ole mahdollista ennalta määritellä Capture (ringing) Toimenpiteellä ei ole havaittu olevan haittaa kohteena oleville lajeille eikä niiden populaatioille
Pohjois-Suomi 2013-03-10 2017-12-31 Pyydystettävien yksilöiden määrää ei ole mahdollista ennalta määritellä Capture (ringing) Toimenpiteellä ei ole havaittu olevan haittaa kohteena oleville lajeille eikä niiden populaatioille
Malta 2013-01-01 2013-12-31 Since it was not possible to determine beforehand the number of specimens that would be collected or handed over to the National Museum of Natural History during the year, a limit was not given. Stuffing In view that the specimens in question are already dead due to some other circumstance, the keeping of their bodies would not negatively impact the population.
Malta 2013-01-01 2013-12-31 Since it was not possible to determine beforehand the number of specimens that would be collected or handed over to the National Museum of Natural History during the year, a limit was not given. Keeping for educational and scientific purpose In view that the specimens in question are already dead due to some other circumstance, the keeping of their bodies would not negatively impact the population.
Malta 2013-01-01 2013-12-31 Since it was not possible to determine beforehand the number of specimens that would be collected or handed over to the National Museum of Natural History during the year, a limit was not given. Stuffing In view that the specimens in question are already dead due to some other circumstance, the keeping of their bodies would not negatively impact the population.
Malta 2013-01-01 2013-12-31 Since it was not possible to determine beforehand the number of specimens that would be collected or handed over to the National Museum of Natural History during the year, a limit was not given. Keeping for educational and scientific purpose In view that the specimens in question are already dead due to some other circumstance, the keeping of their bodies would not negatively impact the population.
Bulgaria 2012-03-15 2013-12-31 The permit allows 10 individuals from each bird species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) No impact
Bulgaria 2012-03-15 2013-12-31 The permit allows 10 individuals from each bird species to be caught and ringed. Capture (ringing) No impact
Mazowieckie 2010-09-01 2014-09-30 unknown number of local population Deliberate disturbance, scaring away none
Denmark 2009-01-01 2009-12-31 There is no predetermined limitation in the granted licences. Killing There is no impact on the population.
Pohjois-Suomi 2008-10-01 2012-12-31 Rengastusta varten pyydystettävien yksilöiden määrää on mahdontonta arvioida etukäteen Capture (ringing) Ei vaikutusta
Pohjois-Suomi 2008-05-27 2008-12-31 Pyydystettävien yksilöiden määrä ei ole etukäteen arvioitavissa Capture (ringing) Ei vaikutusta
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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