Kingdom: Animalia > Phylum: Chordata > Class: Aves > Order: Charadriiformes > Family: Sternidae > Genus: Sterna > Species: Sterna paradisaea

Arctic Tern - Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan, 1763

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Quick facts

Threat status Europe Least Concern (IUCN)
Protected by EU Birds Directive and 4 other international agreements
Breeding habitats
  • rivers and lakes
  • sparsely vegetated land
Natura 2000 species code A194

Distribution

The distribution map is currently disabled. A new map solution will soon become available. In the meantime, please consult other species distribution map providers listed in the Other resources panel below.

Threat and conservation status

IUCN Red List status of threatened species

The IUCN Red List threat status assesses the risk of extinction.

IUCN Red List Category
Not Evaluated
Near Threatened
Regionally Extinct
Not Applicable
Vulnerable
Extinct in the Wild
Data Deficient
Endangered
Extinct
Least Concern
Critically Endangered

EU conservation status

The EU conservation status is assessed for species mentioned in the EU Habitats Directive annexes. The EU Habitats Directive does not cover this species.

Natura 2000 sites

Protected in the following Natura 2000 sites

Sitecode Country Site name Action
DE1115301 Germany NSG Rantumbecken Map
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DE3513401 Germany Alfsee Map
DE3532401 Germany Vogelschutzgebiet Drömling Map
DE3642401 Germany Rietzer See Map
DE4139401 Germany Mittlere Elbe einschließlich Steckby-Lödderitzer Forst Map
DE4531401 Germany Helmestausee Berga-Kelbra (Anteil Sachsen-Anhalt) Map
DE5314303 Germany NSG Krombachtalsperre Map
DE5412401 Germany Westerwälder Seenplatte Map
DE5511301 Germany NSG Urmitzer Werth Map
DE5511401 Germany Engerser Feld Map
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DE1423491 Germany Schlei Map
CY4000007 Cyprus XEROS POTAMOS Map
DE1934401 Germany Wismarbucht und Salzhaff Map
DE1747402 Germany Greifswalder Bodden und südlicher Strelasund Map
FR5212014 France Estuaire de la Loire - Baie de Bourgneuf Map
FR5212015 France Secteur marin de l'île d'Yeu jusqu'au continent Map
FR5212013 France Mor Braz Map
ES90ATL01 Spain El Cachucho Map
ES1200006 Spain Ría de Villaviciosa Map
UK9020291 United Kingdom Copeland Islands Map
IE0004172 Ireland Dalkey Islands SPA Map
IE0004132 Ireland Illancrone and Inishkeeragh SPA Map
IE0004175 Ireland Deenish Island and Scariff Island SPA Map
IE0004144 Ireland High Island, Inishshark and Davillaun SPA Map
IE0004152 Ireland Inishmore SPA Map
FR7212018 France Bassin d'Arcachon et banc d'Arguin Map
FR3112006 France Bancs des Flandres Map
AT3402000 Austria Rheindelta Map
ES1200055 Spain Cabo Busto-Luanco Map
IE0004230 Ireland West Donegal Islands SPA Map
LV0900200 Latvia Akmensrags Map
IE0004159 Ireland Slyne Head to Ardmore Point Islands SPA Map
SE0530215 Sweden Tösse skärgård Map
IE0004123 Ireland Slyne Head Islands SPA Map
ES0000497 Spain Espacio marino de la Costa da Morte Map
ES0000495 Spain Espacio marino de Punta de Candelaria-Ría de Ortigueira-Estaca de Bares Map
ES0000494 Spain Espacio marino de Cabo Peñas Map
ES0000498 Spain ZEPA Banco de Galicia Map
ES0000490 Spain Espacio marino de la Ría de Mundaka-Cabo de Ogoño Map
ES0000499 Spain Espacio marino de las Rías Baixas de Galicia Map
ES0000535 Spain ZEPA Banco de la Concepción Map
ES0000500 Spain Golfo de Cádiz Map

Protected sites

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Legal status

Legal text Annex Conditions More information
Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 30 November 2009, on the conservation of wild birds (EU Birds Directive) http://ec.europa.eu/environm...rective/index_en.htm
Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats (Bern Convention) (Sterna macrura) http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cul.../bern/default_en.asp
(Sterna macrura) https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc....ckColorLogged=FDC864

Resolution No. 6 (1998) of the Bern Convention lists the species requiring specific habitat conservation measures [and the designation of Areas of Special Conservation Interest (ASCIs) forming for the Emerald network]
Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. (Bonn Convention) Atlantic population http://www.cms.int/
Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds. Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals. (AEWA) http://www.migratoryspecies....ent/about-cms-family

http://www.unep-aewa.org/en/legalinstrument/aewa

Common names and synonyms

Common Name Language Reference
Andorinha-do-mar-árctica Portuguese Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Arctic Tern English Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Charrán Artico Spanish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Havterne Danish EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Juras zirinš Latvian Latvian NRC
Küstenseeschwalbe German Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Lapintiira Finnish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Noordse Stern Dutch Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Rybák dlouhoocasý Czech Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Rybitwa popielata Polish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Sarki csér Hungarian Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Silvertärna Swedish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Sterna codalunga Italian Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Sterne arctique French Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
No synonyms available.

Other resources

CoL (accepted name) Catalogue of Life
EBCC Atlas of breeding birds European Bird Census Council's Atlas of Breeding Birds
EURing code:06160 European bird-ringing
EoL Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea Fauna Europaea
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
ITIS (Valid name) Interagency Taxonomic Information System
NCBI search National Center for Biotechnology Information
PESI (Accepted) Pan-European Species directories Infrastructure
Wikipedia Wikipedia
WoRMS World Register of Marine Species

External data

Population distribution from "Birds in Europe" editions 1 and 2

These publications present a thorough and detailed review of the conservation status of European birds. Based on detailed breeding and wintering population data collected in each country, the report provides a review of the population sizes and trends of Species of European Conservation Concern.

15 items found, displaying all items.1
Country Biogeographic region Min / Max (Units) Period Status Quality Source Published
Denmark 8000/9000 (pairs) 1993-1996 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Denmark - Greenland 30000/100000 (pairs) 1990-2000 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Estonia 6000/9000 (pairs) 1998 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Finland 60000/90000 (pairs) 1998-2002 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
France 0/1 (pairs) 1996-2001 Breeding Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
France 0/2 (individuals) 1998-2002 Wintering Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Germany 6100/6700 (pairs) 1995-1999 Breeding Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Iceland 250000/500000 (pairs) 1978-1994 Breeding Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Ireland 2735/2735 (pairs) 1999-2002 Breeding Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Latvia 25/50 (pairs) 1990-2000 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Netherlands 1900/2300 (pairs) 1998-2000 Breeding Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Norway 30000/40000 (pairs) 1995 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Russian Federation 20000/50000 (pairs) 1990-2002 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Sweden 20000/25000 (pairs) 1999-2000 Breeding Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
United Kingdom 53400/53400 (pairs) 1998-2002 Breeding Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004-01-01
Source: BirdLife International

Population trends from "Birds in Europe" editions 1 and 2

These publications present a thorough and detailed review of the conservation status of European birds. Based on detailed breeding and wintering population data collected in each country, the report provides a review of the population sizes and trends of Species of European Conservation Concern.

15 items found, displaying all items.1
Country Biogeographic region Period Status Trend Quality Source Published
Denmark 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Denmark - Greenland 1990-2000 Breeding Decreasing between 0% to 19% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Estonia 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Finland 1990-2000 Breeding Increasing : 20 % Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
France 1990-2000 Breeding Fluctuating : 80 % Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
France 1990-2000 Wintering Unknown Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Germany 1990-2000 Breeding Stable between 0% to 19% Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Iceland 1990-2000 Breeding Unknown Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Ireland 1990-2000 Breeding Increasing between 50% to 79% Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Latvia 1990-2000 Breeding Decreasing between 50% to 79% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Netherlands 1990-2000 Breeding Stable : 18 % Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Norway 1990-2000 Breeding Decreasing between 0% to 19% Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Russian Federation 1990-2000 Breeding Fluctuating between 20% to 29% Species poorly known, with no quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Sweden 1990-2000 Breeding Increasing between 0% to 9% Species generally well known, but only poor or incomplete quantitative data available Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
United Kingdom 1990-2000 Breeding Decreasing : 31 % Reliable quantitative data (e.g. atlas survey or monitoring data, etc.) are available for the whole period and region in question Birds in Europe 2 (1990-2000) 2004
Source: BirdLife International

Reportnet deliveries

Files delivered through Reportnet with relevance to this species.

20 items found, displaying all items.1
Released Coverage Envelope File
2015-12-11 France France reporting Birds Directive corrected files Alsace
2015-12-11 France France reporting Birds Directive corrected files Lorraine
2015-12-11 France France reporting Birds Directive corrected files PACA
2015-12-11 France France reporting Habitas Directive 2014 corrected files Auvergne
2015-11-18 Netherlands Birds Directive Derogations 2014 part 1 BD_derogations2014_RVO_NL_part1.xml
2015-10-02 Finland Bird 2014 FI_Bird_Report_2014.xml
2015-09-17 France France rapport art 9 directive oiseaux 79/409/CEE année 2012 NORD_PAS_DE_CALAIS_birds_habides_export.xml
2015-02-24 Germany Birds Derogation 2013 Germany Birds_2013_GER.xml
2014-10-30 Poland National Report on Derogations under the Birds and Habitats Directives Habitats and Birds Derogations Report
2013-10-11 Finland Bird2012 FI_bird_report_2012.xml
2013-09-13 Netherlands BD Derogations 2011 OLD Bird Directive Derogations 2011
2012-10-30 United Kingdom Directive 2009/147/EC: Derogation under Article 9: Report by the UK for 2011 Dept. of Env., Northern Ireland
2012-10-30 United Kingdom Directive 2009/147/EC: Derogation under Article 9: Report by the UK for 2011 Scottish Natural Heritage
2012-05-03 Denmark 2009 Danish national derogation reports under Art. 9.3 of the EU Birds Directive questionnaire_habides.xml
2011-11-11 United Kingdom Directive 2009/147/EC: Derogation under Article 9: Report by the UK for 2010 DOENI contribution to 2009/147/EC Article 9 UK Report
2011-11-11 United Kingdom Directive 2009/147/EC: Derogation under Article 9: Report by the UK for 2010 NE contribution to 2009/147/EC Article 9 UK Report
2011-06-03 Finland Bird 2009 FI_bird_rap_2009.xml
2010-12-21 Denmark Derogations 2009 questionnaire_habides.xml
2010-12-10 Belgium Derogations Belgium 2007-2008 derogations2007_VL.xml
2010-11-24 United Kingdom Directive 2009/147/EC: Derogations under Article 9: Report by the UK for 2009 NE contribution to 2009/147/EC Article 9 UK Report

Summary of derogations for species

EU member states are required to report derogations from protection efforts of species.

18 items found, displaying all items.1
Region From Until Justification Activity Impact
Groningen 2014-01-01 2018-12-31 No information available Capture The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Groningen 2014-01-01 2018-12-31 No information available Deliberate disturbance, scaring away The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Friesland (NL) 2014-01-01 2018-12-31 No information available Capture The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Friesland (NL) 2014-01-01 2018-12-31 No information available Deliberate disturbance, scaring away The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Noord-Holland 2014-01-01 2018-12-31 No information available Capture The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Noord-Holland 2014-01-01 2018-12-31 No information available Deliberate disturbance, scaring away The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Poland 2013-01-01 2013-12-31 Lutra lutra - 20 individuals, Castor fiber - 2 individuals, Phalacrocorax carbo - 100 individuals Deliberate disturbance during the period of breeding This activities does not have any impact on populations.
Poland 2013-01-01 2013-12-31 Lutra lutra - 20 individuals, Castor fiber - 2 individuals, Phalacrocorax carbo - 100 individuals Deliberate disturbance during the period of rearing This activities does not have any impact on populations.
Malopolskie 2013-01-01 2013-12-31 Lutra lutra - 20 individuals, Castor fiber - 2 individuals, Phalacrocorax carbo - 100 individuals Deliberate disturbance during the period of breeding This activities does not have any impact on populations.
Malopolskie 2013-01-01 2013-12-31 Lutra lutra - 20 individuals, Castor fiber - 2 individuals, Phalacrocorax carbo - 100 individuals Deliberate disturbance during the period of rearing This activities does not have any impact on populations.
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2013-01-01 2013-31-12 keine Vogaben Fang zur Beringung keine
Poland 2012-05-28 2012-12-31 Lutra lutra - 20 individuals, Castor fiber - 2 individuals, Phalacrocorax carbo - 100 individuals Deliberate disturbance during the period of breeding This activities does not have any impact on populations.
Poland 2012-05-28 2012-12-31 Lutra lutra - 20 individuals, Castor fiber - 2 individuals, Phalacrocorax carbo - 100 individuals Deliberate disturbance during the period of rearing This activities does not have any impact on populations.
Malopolskie 2012-05-28 2012-12-31 Lutra lutra - 20 individuals, Castor fiber - 2 individuals, Phalacrocorax carbo - 100 individuals Deliberate disturbance during the period of breeding This activities does not have any impact on populations.
Malopolskie 2012-05-28 2012-12-31 Lutra lutra - 20 individuals, Castor fiber - 2 individuals, Phalacrocorax carbo - 100 individuals Deliberate disturbance during the period of rearing This activities does not have any impact on populations.
United Kingdom 2011-01-01 2011-12-31 not normally restricted Capture (ringing) nil
Northern Ireland (UK) 2010-02-23 2010-09-30 no upper limits set Capture (ringing) limited: BTO ringing studies indicate that there are very low mortalities rates associated with standardised ringing techniquess
Denmark 2009-01-01 2009-12-31 There is no predetermined limitation in the granted licences. Killing There is no impact on the population.
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100