Kingdom: Animalia > Phylum: Chordata > Class: Actinopterygii > Order: Salmoniformes > Family: Salmonidae > Genus: Salmo > Species: Salmo salar

Black salmon - Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758

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Quick facts

Threat status Europe Vulnerable (IUCN)
EU conservation status by biogeographical region Alpine - Unfavourable-Inadequate
Atlantic - Unfavourable-Bad
Boreal - Unfavourable-Inadequate
Continental - Unfavourable-Bad
Protected by EU Habitats Directive and 4 other international agreements
Natura 2000 sites 526 are designated for this species
Reported as invasive by NOBANIS, see also fact sheet
Most preferred habitats
  • rivers and lakes
  • shelf
May also occur in
  • coastal
  • marine inlets and transitional waters
Natura 2000 species code 1106


The distribution map is currently disabled. A new map solution will soon become available. In the meantime, please consult other species distribution map providers listed in the Other resources panel below.

Threat and conservation status

IUCN Red List status of threatened species

The IUCN Red List threat status assesses the risk of extinction.

IUCN Red List Category
Not Evaluated
Near Threatened
Regionally Extinct
Not Applicable
Extinct in the Wild
Data Deficient
Least Concern
Critically Endangered

EU conservation status

Conservation status assesses every six years and for each biogeographical region the condition of habitats and species compared to the favourable status as described in the Habitats Directive. The map shows the 2007-2012 assessments as reported by EU Member State. Assessments are further detailed in the summary document available behind the link below.

Natura 2000 sites

Protected in the following Natura 2000 sites

Sitecode Country Site name Action
BE2200039 Belgium Voerstreek Map
BE33004B0 Belgium Basse Meuse et Meuse mitoyenne (Blégny; Oupeye; Visé) Map
DE2322301 Germany Schwingetal Map
DE2424302 Germany Mühlenberger Loch/Neßsand Map
DE2522301 Germany Auetal und Nebentäler Map
DE2935301 Germany Aland-Elbe-Niederung nördlich Seehausen Map
DE3036301 Germany Elbaue Beuster-Wahrenberg Map
DE3115301 Germany Bäken der Endeler und Holzhauser Heide Map
DE3138301 Germany Elbaue Werben und Alte Elbe Kannenberg Map
DE3138302 Germany Havel nördlich Havelberg Map
DE3238302 Germany Elbaue zwischen Sandau und Schönhausen Map
DE3437302 Germany Elbaue zwischen Derben und Schönhausen Map
DE3637301 Germany Elbaue bei Bertingen Map
DE3736301 Germany Elbaue südlich Rogätz mit Ohremündung Map
DE3835301 Germany Stromelbe im Stadtzentrum Magdeburg Map
DE3936301 Germany Elbaue zwischen Saalemündung und Magdeburg Map
DE3939301 Germany Obere Nuthe-Läufe Map
DE4037302 Germany Elbaue Steckby-Lödderitz Map
DE4138301 Germany Kühnauer Heide und Elbaue zwischen Aken und Dessau Map
DE4140304 Germany Dessau-Wörlitzer Elbauen Map
DE4142301 Germany Elbaue zwischen Griebo und Prettin Map
DE4239302 Germany Untere Muldeaue Map
DE4342301 Germany Elbtal zwischen Mühlberg und Greudnitz Map
DE4545301 Germany Elbtal zwischen Schöna und Mühlberg Map
DE4809301 Germany Dhünn u. Eifgenbach Map
DE4950301 Germany Polenztal Map
DE5050301 Germany Nationalpark Sächsische Schweiz Map
DE5050302 Germany Lachsbach- und Sebnitztal Map
DE5110301 Germany Brölbach Map
DE5208301 Germany Siegaue und Siegmündung Map
DE5210303 Germany Sieg Map
DE5409301 Germany Mündungsgebiet der Ahr Map
DE5613301 Germany Lahnhänge Map
DE5621301 Germany Gewässersystem der Bracht Map
DE5914303 Germany Rheinniederung Mainz-Bingen Map
DE6205301 Germany Sauertal und Seitentäler Map
DE6416301 Germany Rheinniederung Ludwigshafen-Worms Map
DE6716301 Germany Rheinniederung Germersheim-Speyer Map
DE6816301 Germany Hördter Rheinaue Map
DE6915301 Germany Rheinniederung Neuburg-Wörth Map
DK003X207 Denmark Gribskov Map
DK00AX175 Denmark Nørholm Hede, Nørholm Skov og Varde Å øst for Varde Map
DK00AX177 Denmark Sneum Å og Holsted Ådal Map
DK00AX178 Denmark Kongeå Map
DK00AX291 Denmark Alslev Ådal Map
DK00AY176 Denmark Vadehavet med Ribe Å, Tved Å og Varde Å vest for Varde Map
DK00CX037 Denmark Borris Hede Map
DK00CX159 Denmark Heder og klitter på Skovbjerg Bakkeø Map
DK00CX160 Denmark Nissum Fjord Map
DK00CX162 Denmark Skjern Å Map
DK00CX286 Denmark Idom Å og Ormstrup Hede Map
DK00CY163 Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord og Nymindestrømmen Map
EE0010173 Estonia Lahemaa Map
ES0000085 Spain Ribadeo Map
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ES0000087 Spain Complexo intermareal Umia - O Grove, A Lanzada, punta Carreirón e lagoa Bodeira Map
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ES2120018 Spain Txingudi-Bidasoa Map
ES2130003 Spain Barbadungo Itsasadarra / Ría del Barbadun Map
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ES2200014 Spain Río Bidasoa Map
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FR8301074 France Val d'Allier / Vieille Brioude / Langeac Map
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FR8301091 France Dore et affluents Map
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IE0000500 Ireland Glenamoy Bog Complex SAC Map
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IE0002031 Ireland The Twelve Bens/Garraun Complex SAC Map
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IE0002144 Ireland Newport River SAC Map
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IE0002165 Ireland Lower River Shannon SAC Map
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CZ0423510 Czech Republic Ohre Map
DE2049302 Germany Peeneunterlauf, Peenestrom, Achterwasser und Kleines Haff Map
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DE2528331 Germany Elbeniederung zwischen Schnackenburg und Geesthacht Map
LV0507100 Latvia Ventas ieleja Map
PLH320007 Poland Dorzecze Parsęty Map
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EE0070128 Estonia Struuga Map
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PLH040011 Poland Dybowska Dolina Wisły Map
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DE2045302 Germany Peenetal mit Zuflüssen, Kleingewässerlandschaft am Kummerower See Map
EE0010155 Estonia Vasalemma Map
UK0030360 United Kingdom River Roe and Tributaries Map
DE5510301 Germany Mittelrhein Map
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PLH120089 Poland Tarnawka Map
FR3102005 France Baie de Canche et couloir des trois estuaires Map
FR5202012 France Estuaire de la Loire Sud - Baie de Bourgneuf Map
FR2502020 France Baie de Seine occidentale Map
FR7200811 France Panache de la Gironde et plateau rocheux de Cordouan (Système Pertuis Gironde) Map
FR5202011 France Estuaire de la Loire Nord Map
FR2502021 France Baie de Seine orientale Map
FR7200813 France Côte basque rocheuse et extension au large Map
ES1200016 Spain Ría del Eo Map
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UK0030361 United Kingdom River Faughan and Tributaries Map
LTSAK0002 Lithuania Nemuno upė Panemunių regioniniame parke Map
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LTSIU0015 Lithuania Nemuno upė Rambyno regioniniame parke Map
LTVIN0024 Lithuania Vilnios upė Map
LTKLAB010 Lithuania Kuršių marios Map
UK0012759 United Kingdom Kinveachy Forest Map
UK0012935 United Kingdom North Harris Map
UK0019812 United Kingdom Insh Marshes Map
ES1200055 Spain Cabo Busto-Luanco Map
FR2601017 France Bords de Loire entre Iguerande et Decize Map
PLH220052 Poland Dolina Słupi Map
NL2014067 Netherlands Rijntakken Map
PLH080028 Poland Krośnieńska Dolina Odry Map
DE7114311 Germany Rheinniederung und Hardtebene zwischen Lichtenau und Iffezheim Map

Protected sites

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Legal status

Legal text Annex Conditions More information
Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora - consolidated version 01/01/2007 (EU Habitats Directive) Except the Finnish populations
Only in fresh water
Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats (Bern Convention)
Only in freshwater

Resolution No. 6 (1998) of the Bern Convention lists the species requiring specific habitat conservation measures [and the designation of Areas of Special Conservation Interest (ASCIs) forming for the Emerald network]
Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic ("OSPAR Convention") (OSPAR Convention)
Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (Helsinki Convention)

Common names and synonyms

Common Name Language Reference
Alabalik atlantik Turkish Fishbase
Amerikanskiy atlanticheskiy losos' Russian Fishbase
An bradán Irish (recte Irish Gaelic) Fishbase
Atlanterhavslaks Danish Fishbase
Atlantischer salmón German Fishbase
Atlantisk laks Danish Fishbase
Black salmon English Fishbase
Bradan Irish (recte Irish Gaelic) Fishbase
Common Atlantic salmon English Fishbase
Drooggezouten gekruide zalm Dutch Fishbase
Echter Lachs German Fishbase
Grilse English Fishbase
Gullspångslax Swedish Fishbase
Hengst Dutch Fishbase
Hoplax Icelandic Fishbase
Ijle zalm Dutch Fishbase
Jacobzalm Dutch Fishbase
Kelt English Fishbase
Kutenut lohi Finnish Fishbase
Lachs German EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Laks Danish EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Laks Norwegian Fishbase
Laks atlantisk Norwegian Fishbase
Las German Fishbase
Lax Icelandic Fishbase
Lax Norwegian Fishbase
Lax Swedish EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Lohi Finnish Fishbase
Losos Polish Fishbase
Losos Russian Fishbase
Losos Serbian Fishbase
Losos obecný Czech Fishbase
Losos szlachetny a. atlantycki Polish Fishbase
N. Atlantic salmon English Fishbase
Nedfaldslaks Danish Fishbase
Parr English Fishbase
Salm German Fishbase
Salmao Portuguese Fishbase
Sãlmao-do-Atlântico Portuguese Fishbase
Salmling German Fishbase
Salmo Italian Fishbase
Salmon English Fishbase
Salmon Serbian Fishbase
Salmón Spanish EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Salmón del Atlántico Spanish Fishbase
Salmone Italian EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Salmone atlantico Italian Fishbase
Salmone del Reno Italian Fishbase
Salmone kipper Italian Fishbase
Saumon atlantique French EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Sea salmon English Fishbase
Semga Russian Fishbase
Silver salmon English Fishbase
Skællaks Danish Fishbase
Solomós Greek Fishbase
Somon de Atlantic Romanian Fishbase
Tacon Atlantique French Fishbase
Vraklax Swedish Fishbase
Zalm Dutch EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Synonym Author
Salmo brevipes Smitt, 1883
Salmo hamatus Cuvier, 1829
Salmo nobilis Pallas, 1814
Trutta salar Siebold, 1863
Salmo salmo Valenciennes, 1848
Salmo goedenii Bloch, 1784
Salmo salmulus Walbaum, 1792
Salmo caerulescens Schmidt, 1795
Salmo renatus Lacepède, 1803
Salmo rilla Lacepède, 1803
Salmo ocla Nilsson, 1832
Trutta relicta Malmgren, 1863
Salmo gracilis Couch, 1865
Salmo hardinii Günther, 1866
Salmo nobilis Olafsen, 1772
Salmo salar lacustris Hardin, 1862
Salmo salar saimensis Seppovaara, 1962
Salmo salar europaeus Payne, Child, & Forrest, 1971
Trutta salar (Linnaeus, 1758)
Salmo salar brevipes Smitt, 1882
Salmo salar brevipes relictus Berg, 1932
Salmo salar biennis Berg, 1912

Other resources

CoL (accepted name) Catalogue of Life
Fauna Europaea Fauna Europaea
FishBase FishBase
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Habitats Directive Art. 17-2006 summary
ITIS (Valid name) Interagency Taxonomic Information System
NCBI search National Center for Biotechnology Information
PESI (Accepted) Pan-European Species directories Infrastructure
Wikipedia Wikipedia
WoRMS World Register of Marine Species

External data

Reportnet deliveries

Files delivered through Reportnet with relevance to this species.

38 items found, displaying all items.1
Released Coverage Envelope File
2015-12-15 Portugal PT_Habitats_2013_2014_correct file habides_export.xml
2015-12-10 France France reporting Habitas Directive 2014 corrected files Auvergne
2015-12-10 France France reporting Habitas Directive 2014 corrected files Centre Val de Loire
2015-11-03 France FRANCE Rapport art 16 Directive Habitat 92/43/CEE année 2011 Dérogations région Aquitaine
2015-09-17 France FRANCE Rapport art 16 Directive Habitat 92/43/CEE année 2012 AQUITAINE-habides_export_habitats.xml
2014-11-17 Lithuania Report for Habitats Directive 2011-2012 Report for Habitats Directive 2011-2012
2014-01-07 Luxembourg Article 17 report 92/43/CEE 2007_2012 Luxembourg LU_species_reports-13823-134519.xml
2013-12-29 Lithuania Third LT report on Art.17,2007-2012 LT_species_reports-131230-135438.xml
2013-12-29 Sweden Report on Implementation Measures (Art.17.1)_delivery 2013 SE_species_reports-131230-111623.xml
2013-12-09 Portugal PT_Habitats_2011_2012 PT_Habitats_2011_2012
2013-12-08 Poland Habitats Directive Art. 17 Report PL_species_reports.xml
2013-10-18 Latvia LATVIA_2007-2012 LV_species_reports-131018-113252.xml
2013-10-10 United Kingdom Habitats Directive Article 17 2013 2nd submission UK GB_species_reports-13925-15297.xml
2013-10-07 Finland Habitat directive reporting (FI) 2007-2012 FI_species_reports.xml
2013-09-18 Portugal Relatorio nacional sobre a implementacao da Directiva Habitats 2013 PT_species_reports.xml
2013-09-17 Estonia Eesti2013 EE_species_reports-13917-14855.xml
2013-09-11 Spain Habitats Directive: Report Art.17 2007-2012 ES_species_reports
2013-08-23 Czech Republic CZ_Rep_HDArt17_2013_2nd_submission:corrected CZ_species_reports.xml
2012-10-03 Lithuania LT_HABderogations_2010 LT_HAB_report_for_2010.xml
2012-08-30 Lithuania LT Habitat directive report 2008 LT_HAB_report_for_2008.xml
2012-05-15 Lithuania Derogation report for 2009 Habitats derogation 2009 .xml
2008-07-07 Spain Spain's delivery of 3 July Salmo salar
2008-04-14 Estonia eesti Species questionnaire for Salmo salar
2008-04-10 Germany German national report Salmo salar
2008-03-16 Netherlands NL Report HR 2007 Salmo salar
2008-03-02 Lithuania Buveiniu direktyvos igyvendinimo ataskaita Species questionnaire for Salmo salar
2008-02-27 France rapport France Salmo salar
2008-02-25 Denmark DK Species questionnaire for Salmo salar
2008-02-24 United Kingdom UK_submission Salmo salar
2008-02-24 Portugal Relatório nacional sobre a implementação da Directiva Habitats Species questionnaire for Salmo salar
2008-01-15 Belgium Natura 2000 habitat report Species questionnaire for Salmo salar
2008-01-14 Luxembourg Article 17 report 92/43/CEE Luxembourg Species questionnaire for Salmo salar
2008-01-10 Finland Suomi virallinen Species questionnaire for Salmo salar
2008-01-10 Ireland Habitats Directive Article 17 report Salmo salar
2007-10-02 Latvia LATVIA 2001-2006 Salmo salar
2007-10-02 Sweden Report on Implementation Measures (Art.17.1)_delivery 2007 Species questionnaire for Salmo salar
2007-10-01 Czech Republic Species and Habitats Species questionnaire for Salmo salar
2007-10-01 Poland Report on Implementation Measures Species questionnaire for Salmo salar
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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