The Diversity of European Vegetation. An overview of phytosociological alliances and their relationships to EUNIS habitats.

Reference information

Title The Diversity of European Vegetation. An overview of phytosociological alliances and their relationships to EUNIS habitats.
Alternative title The Diversity of European Vegetation
Source Rodwell, J.S., Schamineé, J.H.J., Mucina, L., Pignatti, S., Dring, J. & Moss, D.
Journal Title
Book Title
Journal Issue EC-LNV nr. 2002/054
Created 2002-01-01
Publisher National Reference Centre for Agriculture, Nature and Fisheries, Wageningen
Language English

Habitats related to this reference

A2.5 Coastal saltmarshes and saline reedbeds
A2.6 Littoral sediments dominated by aquatic angiosperms
A5.5 Sublittoral macrophyte-dominated sediment
A5.53 Sublittoral seagrass beds
B1.1 Sand beach driftlines
B1.2 Sand beaches above the driftline
B1.3 Shifting coastal dunes
B1.4 Coastal stable dune grassland (grey dunes)
B1.5 Coastal dune heaths
B1.6 Coastal dune scrub
B1.7 Coastal dune woods
B1.8 Moist and wet dune slacks
B1.9 Machair
B2.1 Shingle beach driftlines
B2.3 Upper shingle beaches with open vegetation
B3 Rock cliffs, ledges and shores, including the supralittoral
B3.3 Rock cliffs, ledges and shores, with angiosperms
C1.1 Permanent oligotrophic lakes, ponds and pools
C1.2 Permanent mesotrophic lakes, ponds and pools
C1.3 Permanent eutrophic lakes, ponds and pools
C1.4 Permanent dystrophic lakes, ponds and pools
C1.5 Permanent inland saline and brackish lakes, ponds and pools
C1.6 Temporary lakes, ponds and pools
C2.1 Springs, spring brooks and geysers
C2.2 Permanent non-tidal, fast, turbulent watercourses
C2.3 Permanent non-tidal, smooth-flowing watercourses
C3.1 Species-rich helophyte beds
C3.2 Water-fringing reedbeds and tall helophytes other than canes
C3.3 Water-fringing beds of tall canes
C3.4 Species-poor beds of low-growing water-fringing or amphibious vegetation
C3.5 Periodically inundated shores with pioneer and ephemeral vegetation
D1.1 Raised bogs
D1.2 Blanket bogs
D2.1 Valley mires
D2.2 Poor fens and soft-water spring mires
D2.3 Transition mires and quaking bogs
D4.1 Rich fens, including eutrophic tall-herb fens and calcareous flushes and soaks
D4.2 Basic mountain flushes and streamsides, with a rich arctic-montane flora
D5.1 Reedbeds normally without free-standing water
D5.2 Beds of large sedges normally without free-standing water
D5.3 Swamps and marshes dominated by Juncus effusus or other large Juncus spp.
D6.1 Inland saltmarshes
D6.2 Inland saline or brackish species-poor helophyte beds normally without free-standing water
E1.1 Inland sand and rock with open vegetation
E1.2 Perennial calcareous grassland and basic steppes
E1.3 Mediterranean xeric grassland
E1.4 Mediterranean tall-grass and Artemisia steppes
E1.5 Mediterranean-montane grassland
E1.6 Subnitrophilous annual grassland
E1.7 Closed non-Mediterranean dry acid and neutral grassland
E1.8 Closed Mediterranean dry acid and neutral grassland
E1.9 Open non-Mediterranean dry acid and neutral grassland, including inland dune grassland
E1.A Open Mediterranean dry acid and neutral grassland
E1.B Heavy-metal grassland
E1.C Dry mediterranean lands with unpalatable non-vernal herbaceous vegetation
E2.1 Permanent mesotrophic pastures and aftermath-grazed meadows
E2.2 Low and medium altitude hay meadows
E2.3 Mountain hay meadows
E2.4 Iberian summer pastures (vallicares)
E2.5 Meadows of the steppe zone
E2.6 Agriculturally-improved, re-seeded and heavily fertilised grassland, including sports fields and grass lawns
E3.1 Mediterranean tall humid grassland
E3.2 Mediterranean short humid grassland
E3.3 Sub-mediterranean humid meadows
E3.4 Moist or wet eutrophic and mesotrophic grassland
E3.5 Moist or wet oligotrophic grassland
E4.1 Vegetated snow-patch
E4.2 Moss and lichen dominated mountain summits, ridges and exposed slopes
E4.3 Acid alpine and subalpine grassland
E4.4 Calcareous alpine and subalpine grassland
E4.5 Alpine and subalpine enriched grassland
E5.2 Thermophile woodland fringes
E5.3 Pteridium aquilinum fields
E5.4 Moist or wet tall-herb and fern fringes and meadows
E5.5 Subalpine moist or wet tall-herb and fern stands
E6.1 Mediterranean inland salt steppes
E6.2 Continental inland salt steppes
F1.2 Moss and lichen tundra
F2.1 Subarctic and alpine dwarf willow scrub
F2.2 Evergreen alpine and subalpine heath and scrub
F2.3 Subalpine deciduous scrub
F2.4 Conifer scrub close to the tree limit
F3.1 Temperate thickets and scrub
F3.2 Submediterranean deciduous thickets and brushes
F4.1 Wet heaths
F4.2 Dry heaths
F4.3 Macaronesian heaths
F5.1 Arborescent matorral
F5.2 Maquis
F5.3 Pseudomaquis
F5.5 Thermo-Mediterranean scrub
F6.1 Western garrigues
F6.2 Eastern garrigues
F6.3 Illyrian garrigues
F6.4 Black Sea garrigues
F6.6 Supra-Mediterranean garrigues
F6.7 Mediterranean gypsum scrubs
F6.8 Xero-halophile scrubs
F7.1 West Mediterranean spiny heaths
F7.2 Central Mediterranean spiny heaths
F7.3 East Mediterranean phrygana
F7.4 Hedgehog-heaths
F8.1 Canary Island xerophytic scrub
F8.2 Madeiran xerophytic scrub
F9.1 Riverine scrub
F9.2 Salix carr and fen scrub
F9.3 Southern riparian galleries and thickets
G1.1 Riparian and gallery woodland, with dominant Alnus, Betula, Populus or Salix
G1.2 Mixed riparian floodplain and gallery woodland
G1.3 Mediterranean riparian woodland
G1.4 Broadleaved swamp woodland not on acid peat
G1.5 Broadleaved swamp woodland on acid peat
G1.6 Fagus woodland
G1.7 Thermophilous deciduous woodland
G1.8 Acidophilous Quercus-dominated woodland
G1.9 Non-riverine woodland with Betula, Populus tremula or Sorbus aucuparia
G1.A Meso- and eutrophic Quercus, Carpinus, Fraxinus, Acer, Tilia, Ulmus and related woodland
G1.B Non-riverine Alnus woodland
G2.1 Mediterranean evergreen Quercus woodland
G2.2 Eurasian continental sclerophyllous woodland
G2.3 Macaronesian Laurus woodland
G2.4 Olea europaea - Ceratonia siliqua woodland
G2.5 Phoenix groves
G2.6 Ilex aquifolium woods
G2.7 Canary Island heath woodland
G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland
G3.2 Alpine Larix - Pinus cembra woodland
G3.3 Pinus uncinata woodland
G3.4 Pinus sylvestris woodland south of the taiga
G3.5 Pinus nigra woodland
G3.6 Subalpine mediterranean Pinus woodland
G3.7 Lowland to montane mediterranean Pinus woodland (excluding Pinus nigra)
G3.8 Canary Island Pinus canariensis woodland
G3.9 Coniferous woodland dominated by Cupressaceae or Taxaceae
G3.A Picea taiga woodland
G3.B Pinus taiga woodland
G3.E Nemoral bog conifer woodland
G4.3 Mixed sub-taiga woodland with acidophilous Quercus
G4.6 Mixed Abies - Picea - Fagus woodland
G4.7 Mixed Pinus sylvestris - acidophilous Quercus woodland
G4.C Mixed Pinus sylvestris - thermophilous Quercus woodland
G5.6 Early-stage natural and semi-natural woodlands and regrowth
G5.8 Recently felled areas
H2 Screes
H2.1 Cold siliceous screes
H2.2 Cold limestone screes
H2.3 Temperate-montane acid siliceous screes
H2.4 Temperate-montane calcareous and ultra-basic screes
H2.5 Acid siliceous screes of warm exposures
H2.6 Calcareous and ultra-basic screes of warm exposures
H3.1 Acid siliceous inland cliffs
H3.2 Basic and ultra-basic inland cliffs
H3.3 Macaronesian inland cliffs
H3.4 Wet inland cliffs
H3.6 Weathered rock and outcrop habitats
H5.3 Sparsely- or un-vegetated habitats on mineral substrates not resulting from recent ice activity
H6.1 Active volcanic features
H6.2 Inactive recent volcanic features
I1.3 Arable land with unmixed crops grown by low-intensity agricultural methods
I1.5 Bare tilled, fallow or recently abandoned arable land
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