Dobrocský Virgin Forest

Quick facts

  • European Diploma of Protected Areas (code SK940002)
  • Since 1998
  • Country: Slovakia
  • Administrative region: Not available
  • Surface area: 2 km2 (204.00 ha)
  • Marine area: Not available

Source and more information: Council of Europe


Site contact authorities

Manager Slovak Environmental Agency Regional Branch Office Lazovná 33 Banská Bystrica Slovak Republic Phone: 0042-088-754-269, 754-289 Fax: 0042-088-534 74
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General character of the site The National Nature Reserve aims at protecting the natural environment, flora and biocenosis which are the examples of European natural ecosystems. It is the preserved fragment of the Carpathian natural forest (virgin forest) as a unique example of the forest ecosystem in the climax stage of fir-beech altitudinal zone. 
Quality The nature reserve is an example of the original, untouched ecosystem of the Carpathian virgin forest of fir-beech in Central Europe, with the development and growth dynamics which fully correspond to the laws of nature without sensible antropic influence. The wood species fir achieves here extraordinary dimensions (height, thickness, volume) and other wood species and especially spruce also approaches these record values. 
Vulnerability The Dobrocsky Virgin Forest was attacked by large wind disasters in 1931 and 1964 ('thick fir' broke down) but these winds did not cause more extensive damages. Spruce stand adjacent to the reserve in later period was attacked by wind in 1978. The virgin forest was partially touched by bark beetle calamity which occurred in its surroundings in 1949-1951 but without any significant damages. The virgin forest proved itself as an effective barrier against the further spread of bark beetle. 
Owner The protected area is owned by the state. It belongs to the original state stock forests. The administration is state enterprise "Stredoslovenské lesy Banská Bistrica" through the mediation of Forest Enterprise Branch in Cierny Balog. 
Documentation - Anonymous author: The Walk among Giants. Socialisticheskaya Chekhoslovakia No. 10- Anonymous author: The Professor Has Been Writing Already... Smer, Banská Bystrica, September 12, 1990- Anonymous author: From the Seminar to the Virgin Forest. Smer, Banská Bystrica, June 8, 1994- Anonymous author: They Protect Nature Locality, l’ud, Bratislava, October 22, 1985- Anonymous author: The Oldest Nature Reserve in Slovakia. Slovensko, 1982, No. 3, p. 19- Bencat', F.: Nature Reserves in Slovakia, Martin 1956, p. 32- Benko, J.: The Research of the State Nature Reserve The Dobrocsky Virgin Forest. Pamiatky a Priroda, No. 5, pp. 9-1 1, Bratislava 1973- Benko. J.: The Dobrocsky Virgin Forest, Ceskoslovenská ochrana prirody 16, Bratislava, 1976, pp. 231-257- Benko, J.: The State Nature Reserve The Dobrocsky Virgin Forest and Spruce Monoculture. Research Works on Nature Protection 2, Bratislava 1978- Bubeliny, R.: Properties of Upper Soil Horizons in Forest Types of the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest. Dissertation. Woodworking and Forestry College, FF Zvolen 1972, p. 47- Burkovsky, J.: The Dobrocsky Virgin Forest. Priekopnik, B. Bystrica, March 18, 1980- Burkovsky, J.: Forest Giants from Dobroc. Smer, B. Bystrica, September 21, 1984- Burkovsky, J. in Galvánek, J.: Guide and Informant of the 10th Conservationists Camp 1974 - Sozky, B. Bystrica 1974, pp. 21-22- Burkovsky, J. in Kmet', S.: 35 Years of the Banská Bystrica District Development. (Ochrana prirody) ONV B. Bystrica 1979, p. 131- Burkovsky, J.: Research and Management of the Carpathian Natural and Primeval Forest. Reports from Conference ACANAP. Carpathi Poland 1994, pp. 150-160- Ciesarik, M.: Micromorphology of Soils in Selected State Nature Reserves in Slovakia. International Scientific Conference, Zvolen 1982, pp. 15-21- Cinéura, J.: The Dobrocsky Virgin Forest, Priekopnik, B. Bystrica May 10, 1983- Darola, J.: The Nature in the District Banská Bystrica and its Protection. Pamiatky a Priroda 1/5, Bratislava 1970, pp. 13-15- Darola, J.: The Forestry Reserve 'The Dobrocsky Virgin Forest’, its Significance and Utilization, Ochrana prirody, No. 5, pp 157-158, Prague 1957- Darola, J., Hakvá, H. : The Walk among Giants. Ceskoslovensky svet No. 6, Prague 1985, pp. 23-25- Hatiar, A.: The Dobrocsky Big Fir. Spravodaj ÜHUL, Zvolen 1964, pp. 10-12- Hatiar, A.: The Dobrocsky 'Big Fir' Was Broken Down by Windstorm. Les No. 6, pp. 180-183 Bratislava 1965- Holubcik, M.: Spruce in Nature Reserves of the Slovenské rudohorie Mountains. Ceskoslovenská ochrana prirody No. 16, pp. 9-34, Bratislava 1976,- Holubcik, M.: The Dobrocsky Thick Fir Fell Down. Lesnicke práce No. 5, pp. 285- 286, 1965- Holubcik, M.: Damage in the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest. Ochrana prirody No. 1. pp. 8-9, Prague 1966- Chroust, M.: The Dobrocsky Virgin Forest. Lesnicke prace No. 5 pp. 244-246, 1972- Janota, D., Tesák, M., Voloscuk, l.: Beauties and Rarities of the Slovak Nature. Osveta Martin 1984, p. 226- Javora, V.: Microclimatic Conditions in Forest Types of the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest. Dissertation. Forestry Faculty of the Forestry and Woodworking College, Zvolen 1973, p. 45- Klinda, J.: Protected Natural Areas in SSR. Obzor Bratislava 1985. p. 195- Korpel', S.: The Dobrocsky Virgin Forest, Its Structure, Development and Production Conditions. Ceskoslovenská ochrana prirody 5, Bratislava 1967, p. 321- 354- Korpel', S.: Virgin Forests in Slovakia. Veda. Bratislava 1989, pp. 191-200- Kotlaba, F. - Pouzar, Z.: Fungi (Agaricales) of the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest in Slovakia. Ceská mykologie 16,3, Praha 1962, pp. 173-191- Kotlaba, F. - Pouzar, Z.: The Dobrocsky Virgin Forest in Slovakia - the Pearl of our Virgin Forest Reserves, Ochrana prirody No. 10, pp. 149-151, Prague 1962- Krigka, R.: The Oldest Reserves in the Middle Slovakia. Ochrana prirody a pamiatok 312, p. 6, Bratislava 1963- Kriska, R.: The Dobrocsky Virgin Forest - the Significant Nature Reserve. In Spravodaj KSSPSOP, No. 2, pp. 12-13, B. Bystrica 1963- Kriska, R.: Windstorm Calamity in the Protected Areas of Slovakia. In Spravodaj KSSPSOP No. 7, p. 17, B. Bystrica 1965- Kubinyi, P.: The Ballad on Green Queen, Práca, Bratislava, Oetober 11, 1988- Kusák, a.: The Research of the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest Reserve. Partial Final Report VÜLH Zvolen, Bratislava 1960- Laubová, J., Turchanová, A., Galvánek, J.: The List of Designated Protected Areas and Parts of the Nature. Spravodaj KSSPSOP 13, pp. 39-74, B. Bystrica 1969- Linhart, K.: What's the Way to the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest? Krásy Slovenska 8, Bratislava 1986- Marsáková, M., Nemcová, M., Mihálik, S. et al.: National Parks, Reserves and other Protected Natural Areas in Czechoslovakia. Academia Prague 1977, p. 353- Mihálik, S.: Accessibie Forms of Some Biogenetic Elements in Soils of Selected State Nature Reserves in Slovakia. International Scientifie Conference, Zvolen 1982, pp.- Mihálik, S. et al.: Protected Areas and Natural Monuments of Slovakia. Priroda Bratislava 1971, pp. 42-43- Mihálik, S: Several Resuits of the lnspection of Protected Areas in Slovakia. Proceedings SOP 10, pp. 131-146, Bratislava 1970- Mihálik, S.: We Prepare Establishment of New Protected Areas in Slovakia. Pamiatky a priroda No. 1, pp. 25-27, Obzor Bratislava 1970- Mikovic, F.: Across Balog Black Woods ... Smer, Banská Bystrica, September 17, 1993- Pelisek, J.: Characteristics of Soil Conditions in the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest. Ochrana prirody No. 5, pp. 140-143, Prague 1957- Petrik, M.: Microclimate of the Nature Reserve in the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest. Report to the Final Opponent's Opinion, Forestry Faculty of Woodworking and Forestry College Zvolen 1975, pp. 85-169- Petrik, M., Slávik. D.: Microclimate of the Nature Reserve The Dobrocsky Virgin Forest. Ceskoslovenská ochrana prirody 1 9, pp. 61-86, Bratislava 1979- Petrik, M.: Bioclimate and its changes in main Evolutionary Stages of the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest wit 
Habitat types  
Potential vegetation  
Geomorphology The bedrock is formed of Slovak rudohorie crystalline rocks, slaty granites, granodiorites and quartz diorites. The climate is cold (average annual temperatures 5,4 - 6,5 °C) and wet (average annual precipitation is 760 to 920 mm). Prevailoing soils are brown ones. 
Educational interest Scientific values are given by the possibility of evolutionary and growth relations research of the original climax forest ecosystem not violated by human activity. Scientific attention is paid to the area for 50 years.Hatiar performed the first forest taxonomie inventory in 1935. He also rneasured the Dobrocsky thick" fir. Hatiar also performed detailed measurement and the evaluation of gains for last 30 years (1964) when the fir had been broken down by windstorm.The purposeful research of stands has started since 1948 when 6 permanent research areas (hereafter PRA) were estabiished on the initiative of Leinbundgut in co-operation with Biskupsky. Partial results were published by Leinbundgut (1959). The results of repeated measurement on these areas from 1958 are given in the one-shot measurements aimed at the study of the virgin forest structure were performed under leadership of Polansky from Agricultural University in Brno. Peligek (1957) characterized soil conditions of the Dobrodsky Virgin Forest, Katlaba and Pouzar (1962) studied mushrooms.The differentiation of the basic types of forest phytocoenoses according to Ziatnik's typological school was realized under Randuska's leadership in 1961 and resulted in the first typological map of the Dobrodsky Virgin Forest. Randusková (1964) dealt with the determination of relations between evolutionary stages of the Dobrodsky Virgin Forest and the types of basic phytocoenoses. Typological relations were presented by Randuska (1967) in the publication The Dobrocsky Virgin Forest.Priesol (1965) presents trunk analyses of fir and spruce from the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest. The study of structure, growth and gain of the virgin forest on 6 PRA based in 1965 were evaluated by Priesol in his final report (1966). Priesol (1967) also describes the structure and the development of the virgin forest as well as its production capabilities in the publication "The Dobrocsky Virgin Forest". Korpel dealt with similar long-term studies of the structure and the growth of surficials, growth and production conditions as welt as processes of reproduction of the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest. He realized regular measurements on PRA based for that purpose in 1958 and used also data from other PRA in the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest (18 PRA on the total area 10,2 ha). He obtained valuable data also from several full measurements of the virgin forest. He summarized existing results in the publication "The Virgin Forests of Slovakia" (1989).The study of the forest geobiocoenose and later added spruce monoeufture condition was realized on 2 PRA in the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest in the years 1973- 1975. The results were published by Benko (1978). Holubdik (1976) dealt with the problems of spruce in the nature reserves of the Slovenské rudohorie Mountains.Husenica (1980) dealt with mother substrates and their nutrient supply research on the protected areas of the Middle Slovakia district. Bubeliny in his dissertation (1972) evaluated properties of upper soil horizons in the forest types of the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest. Javora (1973) evaluated microclimate conditions also in his dissertation. Sály and Petrik (1975) dealt with the study of abiotic environment, Petrik and Slávik studied the microclimate of the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest, Petrik (1983) dealt with the bioclimate, Ciesarik (1982) with the soil micromorphology and Mihálik dealt with accessible forms of some biogenetie elements.Large scope of knowledge is the result of extensive scientific utilization of the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest. Hardly any protected area in Slovakia has at its disposal such scope of knowledge.Ecological values follow from the core function which the biocentre of province significance has in the sense of Supra-regional Territorial System of Ecological Stability in Slovakia.Aesthetic values consist in picturesque scenery of the colourful mosaic of the whole evolutionary cycle of the forest. Stately, old, exceptionally thick and high trees are extraordinary impressive. They look like supporting columns of this nature temple. But fallen giants the age of which was filled also rouse admiration. Aesthetie impression is amplified by majestic peace of inviolated nature.Cultural values follow from the fact that the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest belongs among most important parts of the national natural heritage and it undoubtedly has also international significance.Recreational values are limited with respect to the protection of the area. There are no recreation centres or facilities in the closest surroundings. The tourist foot-path across the protected area was closed for the public in 1996. The guidance for field trips is provided by management co-ordinator (Slovak Environment Agency, Regional Branch Banska Bystrica) and Forest Enterprise in Cierny Balog. 
Cultural heritage  
Management plan The objectives and measures within the protected area are as follows: - to leave the protected area without any anthropic interference in the future, - scientific research is possible only on the basis of the permission granted by the administration body responsible for nature protection under conditions determined by professional organization in the field of nature protection, - public access to the protected area is forbidden. Field trips are guided by authorized staff from the Forest Enterprise in Cierny Balog or Slovak Environmental Agency - Regional Branch in Banska Bystrica on the signposted excursion footpath only. - to redirect the cancelled tourist footpath outside of the protected area, - to maintain signposting of the protected area and the information board from 1989, - to direct the management in the protective zone purposefully at the improvernent of buffer function in order to prevent from penetration of negative influence from the surroundings to the core area, - to provide guard service through authorized staff from the Forest Enterprise in Cierny Balog, - to establish the exhibition "in the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest" within the area of the Forest Enterprise in Cierny Balog - the location Pod Skalicou in the Brôtovo Valley. The exhibition will be open only to the professional but also to the wide public (within access of the redirected tourist footpath). - to publish multilingual information booklet on the Dobrocsky Virgin Forest both for the professionals and other visitors from Slovakia and abroad, - to organize comprehensive scientifie inventory research of the protected area. 
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