Kingdom: Animalia > Phylum: Chordata > Class: Aves > Order: Falconiformes > Family: Accipitridae > Genus: Elanus > Species: Elanus caeruleus

Black-shouldered Kite - Elanus caeruleus (Desfontaines, 1789)

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Quick facts

Threat status Europe Least Concern (IUCN)
EU Population status
Protected by EU Birds Directive and 4 other international agreements
Natura 2000 sites 130 are designated for this species
Breeding habitats
  • grassland
  • sparsely vegetated land
Natura 2000 species code A399


The distribution map is currently disabled. A new map solution will soon become available. In the meantime, please consult other species distribution map providers listed in the Other resources panel below.

Threat and EU population status

IUCN Red List status of threatened species

The IUCN Red List threat status assesses the risk of extinction.

EU population status

The status of the population at the EU level was evaluated at the species level; this was based on the reports delivered by Member States under Article 12 of the Birds Directive (see fact sheet below). The EU status assessment can cover several subspecies/subspecific population units. For more information, please consult the species fact sheet and link below.

IUCN Red List Category
Not Evaluated
Near Threatened
Regionally Extinct
Not Applicable
Extinct in the Wild
Data Deficient
Least Concern
Critically Endangered
Population status categories for bird species under the Birds Directive
Near Threatened, declining or depleted
Threatened (i.e. vulnerable, endangered, critically endangered, regionally extinct)
Unknown or not evaluated

Natura 2000 sites

Protected in the following Natura 2000 sites

Sitecode Country Site name Action
ES0000004 Spain Lagunas de Villafáfila Map
ES0000010 Spain Sierra de Guadarrama - ZEPA Map
ES0000011 Spain Monte de El Pardo Map
ES0000014 Spain Monfragüe y las Dehesas del Entorno Map
ES0000017 Spain Cuenca de Gallocanta Map
ES0000019 Spain Aiguamolls de l'Alt Empordà Map
ES0000024 Spain Doñana Map
ES0000049 Spain Los Alcornocales Map
ES0000053 Spain Sierra Norte de Sevilla Map
ES0000068 Spain Embalse de Orellana y Sierra de Pela Map
ES0000069 Spain Embalse de Cornalvo y Sierra Bermeja Map
ES0000070 Spain Sierra de San Pedro Map
ES0000071 Spain Llanos de Cáceres y Sierra de Fuentes Map
ES0000089 Spain Valle del Tiétar y embalses de Rosarito y Navalcán Map
ES0000090 Spain Sierra Morena Map
ES0000093 Spain ZEPA Montes de Toledo Map
ES0000115 Spain Hoces del Río Duratón Map
ES0000116 Spain Valle de Iruelas Map
ES0000118 Spain Arribes del Duero - ZEPA Map
ES0000155 Spain Sierras de Almadén - Chillón y Guadalmez Map
ES0000168 Spain Llanuras de Oropesa, Lagartera y Calera y Chozas Map
ES0000184 Spain Valle del Tiétar - ZEPA Map
ES0000186 Spain Pinares del Bajo Alberche - ZEPA Map
ES0000188 Spain Valles del Voltoya y el Zorita - ZEPA Map
ES0000189 Spain Campo Azálvaro - Pinares de Peguerinos - ZEPA Map
ES0000190 Spain Encinares de los ríos Adaja y Voltoya - ZEPA Map
ES0000194 Spain Oteros-Campos Map
ES0000201 Spain Camino de Santiago Map
ES0000202 Spain Campo de Azaba - ZEPA Map
ES0000204 Spain Tierra de Campiñas Map
ES0000206 Spain Cañones del Duero - ZEPA Map
ES0000207 Spain Penillanuras-Campos Sur Map
ES0000208 Spain Llanuras del Guareña Map
ES0000209 Spain Tierra del Pan Map
ES0000215 Spain Oteros-Cea Map
ES0000216 Spain La Nava-Campos Sur Map
ES0000217 Spain Penillanuras-Campos Norte Map
ES0000218 Spain Campo de Argañán - ZEPA Map
ES0000247 Spain Riberas de los Ríos Huebra y Yeltes Map
ES0000275 Spain Complejo Endorreico de Lebrija-Las Cabezas Map
ES0000324 Spain Embalse de Arrocampo Map
ES0000325 Spain Campiña sur - Embalse de Arroyo Conejos Map
ES0000326 Spain Embalse de Borbollón Map
ES0000327 Spain Embalse de los Canchales Map
ES0000329 Spain Embalse de Valdecañas Map
ES0000337 Spain Estrecho Map
ES0000357 Spain Altos Campos de Gómara Map
ES0000358 Spain Campo de Aliste Map
ES0000365 Spain Páramo Leonés Map
ES0000366 Spain Valdería-Jamuz Map
ES0000367 Spain La Serena y Sierras Periféricas Map
ES0000368 Spain Río Tajo Internacional y Riberos Map
ES0000369 Spain Llanos de Alcantara y Brozas Map
ES0000393 Spain Azud de Badajoz Map
ES0000398 Spain Llanos y Complejo Lagunar de la Albuera Map
ES0000400 Spain Arrozales de Palazuelo y Guadalperales Map
ES0000408 Spain Vegas del Ruecas, Cubilar y Moheda Alta Map
ES0000427 Spain Río y Pinares del Tietar Map
ES0000434 Spain Canchos de Ramiro y Ladronera Map
ES2110018 Spain Arabako hegoaldeko mendilerroak / Sierras meridionales de Álava Map
ES4110002 Spain Sierra de Gredos Map
ES4130024 Spain Sierra de la Cabrera - ZEPA Map
ES4140036 Spain La Nava-Campos Norte Map
ES4150005 Spain Las Batuecas-Sierra de Francia -ZEPA Map
ES4150006 Spain Candelario - ZEPA Map
ES4150039 Spain Quilamas - ZEPA Map
ES4150087 Spain Río Águeda Map
ES4160048 Spain Lagunas de Cantalejo - ZEPA Map
ES4180017 Spain Riberas de Castronuño Map
ES4190009 Spain Lago de Sanabria y alrededores - ZEPA Map
ES4310004 Spain Dehesas de Jerez Map
ES5120015 Spain Litoral del Baix Empordà Map
ES5130016 Spain Valls del Sió-Llobregós Map
ES5130025 Spain Bellmunt-Almenara Map
ES6120006 Spain Marismas del Río Palmones Map
ES6170001 Spain Laguna de La Ratosa Map
ES6170015 Spain Lagunas de Campillos Map
ES6180001 Spain Complejo Endorreico de Utrera Map
ES6180002 Spain Complejo Endorreico de La Lantejuela Map
ES6180003 Spain Laguna del Gosque Map
PTCON0037 Portugal Monchique Map
PTZPE0007 Portugal Serra da Malcata Map
PTZPE0010 Portugal Estuário do Tejo Map
PTZPE0013 Portugal Lagoa de Santo André Map
PTZPE0038 Portugal Douro Internacional e Vale do Águeda Map
PTZPE0042 Portugal Tejo Internacional, Erges e Pônsul Map
PTZPE0043 Portugal Campo Maior Map
PTZPE0045 Portugal Mourão/Moura/Barrancos Map
PTZPE0046 Portugal Castro Verde Map
PTZPE0047 Portugal Vale do Guadiana Map
ES6120015 Spain Acebuchales de La Campiña Sur de Cádiz Map
ES6130005 Spain Suroeste de La Sierra de Cardeña y Montoro Map
ES4310010 Spain La Serena Map
ES4250001 Spain Sierra de San Vicente y valles del Tiétar y Alberche Map
ES6120013 Spain Sierra Líjar Map
ES4320077 Spain Monfragüe Map
PTCON0033 Portugal Cabrela Map
PTCON0004 Portugal Malcata Map
ES3110004 Spain Cuenca del río Manzanares Map
ES6160015 Spain Río Guadiana Menor - Tramo Superior Map
PTCON0034 Portugal Comporta / Galé Map
ES6150023 Spain Dehesa de Torrecuadros y Arroyo de Pilas Map
ES6150010 Spain Andévalo Occidental Map
ES4320002 Spain Cedillo y Río Tajo Internacional Map
ES6130008 Spain Tramo Inferior del Río Guadajoz Map
PTCON0007 Portugal S. Mamede Map
ES6130015 Spain Río Guadalquivir -Tramo Medio Map
PTCON0022 Portugal Douro Internacional Map
ES6150014 Spain Marismas y Riberas del Tinto Map
PTCON0009 Portugal Estuário do Tejo Map
ES4240023 Spain Lagunas y parameras del Señorío de Molina Map
PTCON0030 Portugal Caia Map
ES6150009 Spain Doñana Norte y Oeste Map
PTCON0029 Portugal Cabeção Map
ES2430043 Spain Laguna de Gallocanta Map
ES6140001 Spain Sierra de Baza Map
ES6180005 Spain Corredor Ecológico del Río Guadiamar Map
ES4250005 Spain Montes de Toledo Map
ES6140012 Spain La Malahá Map
ES6130017 Spain Alto Guadiato Map
ES6180017 Spain Campiñas de Sevilla Map
PTZPE0059 Portugal Torre da Bolsa Map
PTZPE0057 Portugal Cuba Map
PTZPE0054 Portugal São Vicente Map
PTZPE0051 Portugal Monforte Map
PTZPE0053 Portugal Vila Fernando Map
PTZPE0055 Portugal Évora Map
ES0000436 Spain A Limia Map
ES0000477 Spain Bellmunt-Almenara Map
ES0000476 Spain Valls del Sió-Llobregós Map

Protected sites

Please note the site map takes a while to display.

Legal status

Legal text Annex Conditions More information
Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 30 November 2009, on the conservation of wild birds (EU Birds Directive)
Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats (Bern Convention) (All species of Falconiformes)

Resolution No. 6 (1998) of the Bern Convention lists the species requiring specific habitat conservation measures [and the designation of Areas of Special Conservation Interest (ASCIs) forming for the Emerald network]
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (Falconiformes spp.)
Commission regulation (EU) No 1320/2014, of 1 December 2014, amending Council Regulation (EC) No 338/97 on the protection of species of wild fauna and flora by regulating trade therein (EU regulation of trade of fauna and flora)

Common names and synonyms

Common Name Language Reference
Blå glente Danish EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Black-shouldered Kite English EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Black-winged Kite English Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Elanio azul Spanish EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Elanio Común Spanish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Élanion blanc French Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Gleitaar German Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Grijze Wouw Dutch Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Kaniuk Polish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Kuhi Hungarian Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Liitohaukka Finnish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Nibbio bianco Italian Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Peneireiro-cinzento Portuguese Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
Svartvingad glada Swedish Hagemeijer, W.J.M. & Blair, M.J.
No synonyms available.

Other resources

CoL (accepted name) Catalogue of Life
EBCC Atlas of breeding birds European Bird Census Council's Atlas of Breeding Birds
EURing code:02350 European bird-ringing
EoL Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea Fauna Europaea
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
ITIS (Valid name) Interagency Taxonomic Information System
NCBI search National Center for Biotechnology Information
NOBANIS: Elanus caeruleus European Network on Invasive Alien Species
PESI (Accepted) Pan-European Species directories Infrastructure
Species+ Species+ by UNEP-WCMC
Wikipedia Wikipedia

External data

No external data sets available for this species
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Phone: +45 3336 7100