Fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation ('grey dunes')

Quick facts

EU Habitats Directive Annex I habitat type (code 2130)
EU conservation status by biogeographical region Atlantic - Unfavourable-Bad
Black Sea - Unfavourable-Inadequate
Boreal - Unfavourable-Bad
Continental - Unfavourable-Bad
Macaronesian - Unfavourable-Bad
Mediterranean - Unfavourable-Inadequate
Habitat type Priority
Natura 2000 sites 542 are designated for this habitat type

Description (English)

Fixed dunes, stabilised and colonised by more or less closed perennial grasslands and abundant carpets of lichens and mosses, from the Atlantic coasts (and the English Channel) between the Straits of Gibraltar and Cap Blanc Nez, and the shores of the North Sea and the Baltic. In the case of the thermo-Atlantic coast, it is logical to include Euphorbio-Helichrysion (Pal. 16.222 - thermo Atlantic as far as Brittany), Crucianellion maritimae (Pal. 16.223 - Strait of Gibraltar as far as the southern Atlantic near Cape Prior in Galicia).
Subtypes
Pal. 16.221: Northern grey dunes: fixed dunes of the Baltic, North Sea, Channel and northern Atlantic, with grass communities and vegetation from Galio-Koelerion albescentis (Koelerion albescentis), Corynephorion canescentis p., Sileno conicae-Cerastion semidecandri.
Pal. 16.222: Biscay grey dunes (Euphorbio-Helichrysion stoechadis): dunes on stabilised humus soil infiltrated by dwarf bushes, of Brittany and the coast of the Bay of Biscay, with Helichrysum stoechas, Artemisia campestris and Ephedra distachya.
Pal. 16.223: Thermo-Atlantic grey dunes (Crucianellion maritimae): suffrutescent communities on more or less stabilised soils low in humus of the thermo-Atlantic coasts of Galicia, Portugal and south-western Spain (as far as the Strait of Gibraltar), with Crucianella maritima and Pancratium maritimum.
Pal. 16.225: Atlantic dune (Mesobromion) grasslands: various sandy coastal sites characterised by herbaceous vegetation in the form of calcicole mesoxerocline grasslands, poor in nitrogen, corresponding to the communities of Mesobromion found by the sea (penetration of aero haline species); dunal grasslands composed of species characteristic of dry calcareous grasslands (Pal. 34.32).
Pal. 16.226: Atlantic dune thermophile fringes: Trifolio-Geranietea sanguinei: Galio maritimi-Geranion sanguinei, Geranium sanguineum formations (Pal. 34.4) incorporated within grey dune systems of the British Isles and Brittany, on neutro basic soils rich in calcium and poor in nitrogen.
Pal. 16.227: Dune fine-grass annual communities: sparse pioneer formations (Pal. 35.2, 35.3) of fine grasses rich in spring-blooming therophytes characteristic of oligotrophic soils (nitrogen poor sand or very superficial soils, or on xerocline to xerophile rocks) (Thero-Airion p.,Nardo-Galion saxatile p., Tuberarion guttatae p.)

Source: Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats, version EUR 28 (2013)

Distribution

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Conservation status

EU conservation status

Conservation status assesses every six years and for each biogeographical region the condition of habitats and species compared to the favourable status as described in the Habitats Directive. The map shows the 2007-2012 assessments as reported by EU Member State. Assessments are further detailed in the summary document available behind the link below.

Favourable: A habitat is in a situation where it is prospering and with good prospects to do so in the future as well
Unfavourable-Inadequate: A habitat is in a situation where a change in management or policy is required to return the habitat to favourable status but there is no danger of disappearance in the foreseeable future
Unfavourable-Bad: A habitat is in serious danger of disappearing (at least regionally)
Unknown: The information available for the habitat type is scarce and does not allow a proper assessment of its conservation status
Full table details

Species mentioned in habitat description

Flowering Plants Anacamptis pyramidalis
Flowering Plants Artemisia campestris
Flowering Plants Bromus hordeaceus
Flowering Plants Carex arenaria
Flowering Plants Corynephorus canescens
Flowering Plants Crucianella maritima
Conifers Ephedra distachya
Flowering Plants Erodium glutinosum
Flowering Plants Galium verum
Flowering Plants Gentiana campestris
Flowering Plants Gentiana cruciata
Flowering Plants Geranium sanguineum
Flowering Plants Helichrysum stoechas
Flowering Plants Milium scabrum
Flowering Plants Myosotis ramosissima
Flowering Plants Ononis repens
Flowering Plants Pancratium maritimum
Flowering Plants Phleum arenarium
Flowering Plants Silene conica
Flowering Plants Silene otites
Mosses & Liverworts Tortula ruraliformis
Flowering Plants Trifolium scabrum
Flowering Plants Tuberaria guttata
Flowering Plants Viola curtisii
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Anacamptis pyramidalis Flowering Plants
Artemisia campestris Flowering Plants
Bromus hordeaceus Flowering Plants
Carex arenaria Flowering Plants
Corynephorus canescens Flowering Plants
Crucianella maritima Flowering Plants
Ephedra distachya Conifers
Erodium glutinosum Flowering Plants
Galium verum Flowering Plants
Gentiana campestris Flowering Plants
Gentiana cruciata Flowering Plants
Geranium sanguineum Flowering Plants
Helichrysum stoechas Flowering Plants
Milium scabrum Flowering Plants
Myosotis ramosissima Flowering Plants
Ononis repens Flowering Plants
Pancratium maritimum Flowering Plants
Phleum arenarium Flowering Plants
Silene conica Flowering Plants
Silene otites Flowering Plants
Tortula ruraliformis Mosses & Liverworts
Trifolium scabrum Flowering Plants
Tuberaria guttata Flowering Plants
Viola curtisii Flowering Plants

Natura 2000 sites

Protected in the following Natura 2000 sites

Sitecode Country Site name Action
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IT3320037 Italy Laguna di Marano e Grado Map
IT3320038 Italy Pineta di Lignano Map
IT3330005 Italy Foce dell'Isonzo - Isola della Cona Map
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IT4060003 Italy Vene di Bellocchio, Sacca di Bellocchio, Foce del Fiume Reno, Pineta di Bellocchio Map
IT4060004 Italy Valle Bertuzzi, Valle Porticino - Canneviè Map
IT4060005 Italy Sacca di Goro, Po di Goro, Valle Dindona, Foce del Po di Volano Map
IT4060007 Italy Bosco di Volano Map
IT4060010 Italy Dune di Massenzatica Map
IT4060012 Italy Dune di San Giuseppe Map
IT4060015 Italy Bosco della Mesola, Bosco Panfilia, Bosco di Santa Giustina, Valle Falce, La Goara Map
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NL2003059 Netherlands Duinen Terschelling Map
NL2003060 Netherlands Duinen en Lage Land Texel Map
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NL4000021 Netherlands Grevelingen Map
NL9801079 Netherlands Duinen Goeree & Kwade Hoek Map
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PLH220003 Poland Białogóra Map
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ROSCI0065 Romania Delta Dunării Map
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SE0110158 Sweden Järflotta Map
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UK0012559 United Kingdom Penhale Dunes Map
UK0012566 United Kingdom Kenfig/ Cynffig Map
UK0012570 United Kingdom Braunton Burrows Map
UK0012594 United Kingdom Rum Map
UK0012694 United Kingdom Monach Islands Map
UK0012713 United Kingdom South Uist Machair Map
UK0012786 United Kingdom Durness Map
UK0012935 United Kingdom North Harris Map
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UK0013027 United Kingdom Morecambe Bay Map
UK0013031 United Kingdom Drigg Coast Map
UK0013039 United Kingdom Luce Bay and Sands Map
UK0013041 United Kingdom Invernaver Map
UK0013042 United Kingdom Sands of Forvie Map
UK0013044 United Kingdom Barry Links Map
UK0013055 United Kingdom Oldshoremore and Sandwood Map
UK0013076 United Kingdom Sefton Coast Map
UK0013077 United Kingdom Sandwich Bay Map
UK0014728 United Kingdom Coll Machair Map
UK0014744 United Kingdom Tiree Machair Map
UK0014787 United Kingdom Limestone Coast of South West Wales/ Arfordir Calchfaen de Orllewin Cymru Map
UK0016612 United Kingdom Murlough Map
UK0016613 United Kingdom Magilligan Map
UK0016618 United Kingdom Strangford Lough Map
UK0017097 United Kingdom North Northumberland Dunes Map
UK0019804 United Kingdom North Uist Machair Map
UK0019806 United Kingdom Dornoch Firth and Morrich More Map
UK0019807 United Kingdom Culbin Bar Map
UK0019838 United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast Map
UK0020019 United Kingdom Carmarthen Bay Dunes/ Twyni Bae Caerfyrddin Map
UK0020021 United Kingdom Y Twyni o Abermenai i Aberffraw/ Abermenai to Aberffraw Dunes Map
UK0030038 United Kingdom Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes Map
UK0030042 United Kingdom Glan-traeth Map
UK0030059 United Kingdom Solent Maritime Map
UK0030073 United Kingdom Achnahaird Map
UK0030084 United Kingdom Bann Estuary Map
UK0030130 United Kingdom Dawlish Warren Map
UK0030131 United Kingdom Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy Map
UK0030140 United Kingdom Durham Coast Map
UK0030170 United Kingdom Humber Estuary Map
UK0030224 United Kingdom North Antrim Coast Map
UK0030270 United Kingdom Saltfleetby-Theddlethorpe Dunes and Gibraltar Point Map
UK0030340 United Kingdom Tràigh na Berie Map
UK0030341 United Kingdom Oronsay Map
UK0030356 United Kingdom Garron Point Map

Protected sites

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Relation to habitat classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 B1.46 Atlantic dune thermophile fringes wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 B1.45 Atlantic dune Mesobromion grassland wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 B1.42 Biscay fixed grey dunes wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 B1.4 Coastal stable dune grassland (grey dunes) same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 B1.47 Dune fine-grass annual communities wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 B1.44 East Mediterranean fixed grey dunes wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 B1.43 Mediterraneo-Atlantic fixed grey dunes wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 B1.41 Northern fixed grey dunes wider
Nordic Vegetation Classification 1994 4.1.4.1 Corynephorus canescens-typ not defined
Nordic Vegetation Classification 1994 4.1.4.2 Festuca rubra-Hieracium umbellatum-typ not defined
National Vegetation Classification (UK) SD9b Ammophila arenaria-Arrhenatherum elatius dune grassland Geranium sanguineum sub-community not defined
National Vegetation Classification (UK) SD7 Ammophila arenaria-Festuca rubra semi-fixed dune community wider
National Vegetation Classification (UK) SD11 Carex arenaria-Cornicularia aculeata dune community wider
National Vegetation Classification (UK) SD12 Carex arenaria-Festuca ovina-Agrostis capillaris grassland not defined
National Vegetation Classification (UK) SD8 Festuca rubra-Galium verum fixed dune grassland not defined
German Federal List of Biotopes 1003a Dünenpionierrasen mit einjähr. Vegetation (Thero-Airion)", not defined
German Federal List of Biotopes 1003 Dünenrasen (Graudüne) not defined
German Federal List of Biotopes 1003b Dünenrasen mit geschlossener Narbe u. überwieg. ausdauernden Arten (Graudüne)". not defined
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Denmark
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