Fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation ('grey dunes')

Quick facts

EU Habitats Directive Annex I habitat type (code 2130)
EU conservation status by biogeographical region Atlantic - Bad
Black Sea - Unknown
Boreal - Bad
Continental - Bad
Macaronesian - Poor
Mediterranean - Poor
Habitat type Priority
Natura 2000 sites 505 are designated for this habitat type

Description (English)

Fixed dunes, stabilised and colonised by more or less closed perennial grasslands and abundant carpets of lichens and mosses, from the Atlantic coasts (and the English Channel) between the Straits of Gibraltar and Cap Blanc Nez, and the shores of the North Sea and the Baltic. In the case of the thermo-Atlantic coast, it is logical to include Euphorbio-Helichrysion (Pal. 16.222 - thermo Atlantic as far as Brittany), Crucianellion maritimae (Pal. 16.223 - Strait of Gibraltar as far as the southern Atlantic near Cape Prior in Galicia).
Pal. 16.221: Northern grey dunes: fixed dunes of the Baltic, North Sea, Channel and northern Atlantic, with grass communities and vegetation from Galio-Koelerion albescentis (Koelerion albescentis), Corynephorion canescentis p., Sileno conicae-Cerastion semidecandri.
Pal. 16.222: Biscay grey dunes (Euphorbio-Helichrysion stoechadis): dunes on stabilised humus soil infiltrated by dwarf bushes, of Brittany and the coast of the Bay of Biscay, with Helichrysum stoechas, Artemisia campestris and Ephedra distachya.
Pal. 16.223: Thermo-Atlantic grey dunes (Crucianellion maritimae): suffrutescent communities on more or less stabilised soils low in humus of the thermo-Atlantic coasts of Galicia, Portugal and south-western Spain (as far as the Strait of Gibraltar), with Crucianella maritima and Pancratium maritimum.
Pal. 16.225: Atlantic dune (Mesobromion) grasslands: various sandy coastal sites characterised by herbaceous vegetation in the form of calcicole mesoxerocline grasslands, poor in nitrogen, corresponding to the communities of Mesobromion found by the sea (penetration of aero haline species); dunal grasslands composed of species characteristic of dry calcareous grasslands (Pal. 34.32).
Pal. 16.226: Atlantic dune thermophile fringes: Trifolio-Geranietea sanguinei: Galio maritimi-Geranion sanguinei, Geranium sanguineum formations (Pal. 34.4) incorporated within grey dune systems of the British Isles and Brittany, on neutro basic soils rich in calcium and poor in nitrogen.
Pal. 16.227: Dune fine-grass annual communities: sparse pioneer formations (Pal. 35.2, 35.3) of fine grasses rich in spring-blooming therophytes characteristic of oligotrophic soils (nitrogen poor sand or very superficial soils, or on xerocline to xerophile rocks) (Thero-Airion p.,Nardo-Galion saxatile p., Tuberarion guttatae p.)

Source: Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats, version EUR 28 (2013)


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Conservation status

EU conservation status

Conservation status assesses every six years and for each biogeographical region the condition of habitats and species compared to the favourable status as described in the Habitats Directive. The map shows the 2013-2018 assessments as reported by EU Member State. Assessments are further detailed in the summary document available behind the link below.

Good: A habitat is in a situation where it is prospering and with good prospects to do so in the future as well
Poor: A habitat is in a situation where a change in management or policy is required to return the habitat to favourable status but there is no danger of disappearance in the foreseeable future
Bad: A habitat is in serious danger of disappearing (at least regionally)
Unknown: The information available for the habitat type is scarce and does not allow a proper assessment of its conservation status
Full table details

Species mentioned in habitat description

Conifers Ephedra distachya
Flowering Plants Anacamptis pyramidalis
Flowering Plants Artemisia campestris
Flowering Plants Bromus hordeaceus
Flowering Plants Carex arenaria
Flowering Plants Corynephorus canescens
Flowering Plants Crucianella maritima
Flowering Plants Erodium glutinosum
Flowering Plants Galium verum
Flowering Plants Gentiana campestris
Flowering Plants Gentiana cruciata
Flowering Plants Geranium sanguineum
Flowering Plants Helichrysum stoechas
Flowering Plants Milium scabrum
Flowering Plants Myosotis ramosissima
Flowering Plants Ononis repens
Flowering Plants Pancratium maritimum
Flowering Plants Phleum arenarium
Flowering Plants Silene conica
Flowering Plants Silene otites
Flowering Plants Trifolium scabrum
Flowering Plants Tuberaria guttata
Flowering Plants Viola curtisii
Mosses & Liverworts Tortula ruraliformis
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Ephedra distachya Conifers
Anacamptis pyramidalis Flowering Plants
Artemisia campestris Flowering Plants
Bromus hordeaceus Flowering Plants
Carex arenaria Flowering Plants
Corynephorus canescens Flowering Plants
Crucianella maritima Flowering Plants
Erodium glutinosum Flowering Plants
Galium verum Flowering Plants
Gentiana campestris Flowering Plants
Gentiana cruciata Flowering Plants
Geranium sanguineum Flowering Plants
Helichrysum stoechas Flowering Plants
Milium scabrum Flowering Plants
Myosotis ramosissima Flowering Plants
Ononis repens Flowering Plants
Pancratium maritimum Flowering Plants
Phleum arenarium Flowering Plants
Silene conica Flowering Plants
Silene otites Flowering Plants
Trifolium scabrum Flowering Plants
Tuberaria guttata Flowering Plants
Viola curtisii Flowering Plants
Tortula ruraliformis Mosses & Liverworts

Natura 2000 sites

Protected in the following Natura 2000 sites

Sitecode Country Site name Action
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IT3270017 Italy Delta del Po: tratto terminale e delta veneto Map
IT3270023 Italy Delta del Po Map
IT3320037 Italy Laguna di Marano e Grado Map
IT3320038 Italy Pineta di Lignano Map
IT3330005 Italy Foce dell'Isonzo - Isola della Cona Map
IT3330006 Italy Valle Cavanata e Banco Mula di Muggia Map
IT4060003 Italy Vene di Bellocchio, Sacca di Bellocchio, Foce del Fiume Reno, Pineta di Bellocchio Map
IT4060004 Italy Valle Bertuzzi, Valle Porticino - Canneviè Map
IT4060005 Italy Sacca di Goro, Po di Goro, Valle Dindona, Foce del Po di Volano Map
IT4060007 Italy Bosco di Volano Map
IT4060010 Italy Dune di Massenzatica Map
IT4060012 Italy Dune di San Giuseppe Map
IT4060015 Italy Bosco della Mesola, Bosco Panfilia, Bosco di Santa Giustina, Valle Falce, La Goara Map
IT4070002 Italy Bardello Map
IT4070003 Italy Pineta di San Vitale, Bassa del Pirottolo Map
IT4070004 Italy Pialasse Baiona, Risega e Pontazzo Map
IT4070005 Italy Pineta di Casalborsetti, Pineta Staggioni, Duna di Porto Corsini Map
IT4070006 Italy Pialassa dei Piomboni, Pineta di Punta Marina Map
IT4070008 Italy Pineta di Cervia Map
IT4070009 Italy Ortazzo, Ortazzino, Foce del Torrente Bevano Map
IT4070010 Italy Pineta di Classe Map
LTKLA0009 Lithuania Pajūrio kopos Map
LTNER0005 Lithuania Kuršių nerija Map
LV0200200 Latvia Kemeru nacionalais parks Map
LV0200300 Latvia Sliteres nacionalais parks Map
LV0301700 Latvia Piejura Map
LV0302800 Latvia Engures ezers Map
LV0303300 Latvia Ragakapa Map
LV0303500 Latvia Pape Map
LV0303600 Latvia Bernati Map
LV0508100 Latvia Ziemupe Map
LV0508600 Latvia Vidzemes akmenaina jurmala Map
LV0509100 Latvia Randu plavas Map
LV0514800 Latvia Plienciema kapa Map
LV0520300 Latvia Uzava Map
LV0521500 Latvia Ovisi Map
LV0523400 Latvia Ances purvi un mezi Map
LV0527400 Latvia Garkalnes mezi Map
LV0528300 Latvia Gipka Map
LV0536500 Latvia Pavilostas peleka kapa Map
LV0600800 Latvia Adazi Map
NL1000001 Netherlands Waddenzee Map
NL1000009 Netherlands Duinen Den Helder - Callantsoog Map
NL1000010 Netherlands Schoorlse Duinen Map
NL1000012 Netherlands Kennemerland-Zuid Map
NL1000013 Netherlands Meijendel & Berkheide Map
NL1000014 Netherlands Westduinpark & Wapendal Map
NL1000016 Netherlands Solleveld & Kapittelduinen Map
NL1000017 Netherlands Kop van Schouwen Map
NL1000020 Netherlands Manteling van Walcheren Map
NL1000030 Netherlands Coepelduynen Map
NL2003059 Netherlands Duinen Terschelling Map
NL2003060 Netherlands Duinen en Lage Land Texel Map
NL2003061 Netherlands Duinen Vlieland Map
NL3000016 Netherlands Zwanenwater & Pettemerduinen Map
NL3000027 Netherlands Zwin & Kievittepolder Map
NL3009005 Netherlands Duinen Ameland Map
NL3009006 Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog Map
NL3009016 Netherlands Oosterschelde Map
NL4000021 Netherlands Grevelingen Map
NL9801079 Netherlands Duinen Goeree & Kwade Hoek Map
NL9801080 Netherlands Noordhollands Duinreservaat Map
NL9803061 Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe Map
NL9803077 Netherlands Voornes Duin Map
PLH220003 Poland Białogóra Map
PLH220018 Poland Mierzeja Sarbska Map
PLH220021 Poland Piaśnickie Łąki Map
PLH220023 Poland Ostoja Słowińska Map
PLH220032 Poland Zatoka Pucka i Półwysep Helski Map
PLH220044 Poland Ostoja w Ujściu Wisły Map
PLH220072 Poland Kaszubskie Klify Map
PLH220100 Poland Klify Poddębskie Map
PLH280007 Poland Zalew Wiślany i Mierzeja Wiślana Map
PLH320017 Poland Trzebiatowsko-Kołobrzeski Pas Nadmorski Map
PLH320019 Poland Wolin i Uznam Map
PLH320041 Poland Jezioro Bukowo Map
PLH320059 Poland Jezioro Kopań Map
PLH320068 Poland Jezioro Wicko i Modelskie Wydmy Map
PTCON0008 Portugal Sintra / Cascais Map
PTCON0009 Portugal Estuário do Tejo Map
PTCON0010 Portugal Arrábida / Espichel Map
PTCON0011 Portugal Estuário do Sado Map
PTCON0012 Portugal Costa Sudoeste Map
PTCON0013 Portugal Ria Formosa / Castro Marim Map
PTCON0017 Portugal Litoral Norte Map
PTCON0018 Portugal Barrinha de Esmoriz Map
PTCON0034 Portugal Comporta / Galé Map
PTCON0055 Portugal Dunas de Mira, Gândara e Gafanhas Map
PTCON0056 Portugal Peniche / Stª Cruz Map
PTCON0058 Portugal Ria de Alvor Map
PTCON0061 Portugal Ria de Aveiro Map
PTFAI0005 Portugal Monte da Guia - Ilha do Faial Map
PTZPE0001 Portugal Estuários dos Rios Minho e Coura Map
PTZPE0010 Portugal Estuário do Tejo Map
PTZPE0013 Portugal Lagoa de Santo André Map
PTZPE0014 Portugal Lagoa da Sancha Map
PTZPE0015 Portugal Costa Sudoeste Map
PTZPE0017 Portugal Ria Formosa Map
ROSCI0065 Romania Delta Dunării Map
ROSCI0073 Romania Dunele marine de la Agigea Map
SE0110158 Sweden Järflotta Map
SE0210212 Sweden Billudden Map
SE0330119 Sweden Bödakustens västra Map
SE0330121 Sweden Bödakustens östra Map
SE0330174 Sweden Sydöstra Ölands sjömarker Map
SE0330264 Sweden Åkerby-Runstens sjömarker Map
SE0340018 Sweden Ugnen Map
SE0340038 Sweden Danbo Map
SE0340092 Sweden Ullahau Map
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SE0420232 Sweden Bjärekusten Map
SE0420233 Sweden Ängelholms kronopark Map
SE0420238 Sweden Klammersbäck Map
SE0420239 Sweden Rinkaby skjutfält Map
SE0420240 Sweden Ravlunda skjutfält Map
SE0420275 Sweden Tostebergakusten Map
SE0420276 Sweden Östra Hammaren-Käringören Map
SE0430082 Sweden Möllehässle-Kullens havsbad Map
SE0430093 Sweden Sandhammaren-Kåseberga Map
SE0430094 Sweden Ystads sandskog Map
SE0430095 Sweden Falsterbohalvön Map
SE0430111 Sweden Falsterbo skjutfält Map
SE0430112 Sweden Kabusa Map
SE0430147 Sweden Jonstorp-Vegeåns mynning Map
SE0430151 Sweden Domsten-Viken Map
SE0510006 Sweden Laholmsbuktens sanddynsreservat Map
SE0510020 Sweden Haverdal Map
SE0510026 Sweden Steninge-Stensjöstrand Map
SE0510039 Sweden Grimsholmen Map
SE0510050 Sweden Balgö Map
SE0630089 Sweden Hölick Map
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Protected sites

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Relation to habitat classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
Nordic Vegetation Classification 1994 Corynephorus canescens-typ not defined
Nordic Vegetation Classification 1994 Festuca rubra-Hieracium umbellatum-typ not defined
National Vegetation Classification (UK) SD9b Ammophila arenaria-Arrhenatherum elatius dune grassland Geranium sanguineum sub-community not defined
National Vegetation Classification (UK) SD7 Ammophila arenaria-Festuca rubra semi-fixed dune community wider
National Vegetation Classification (UK) SD11 Carex arenaria-Cornicularia aculeata dune community wider
National Vegetation Classification (UK) SD12 Carex arenaria-Festuca ovina-Agrostis capillaris grassland not defined
National Vegetation Classification (UK) SD8 Festuca rubra-Galium verum fixed dune grassland not defined
German Federal List of Biotopes 1003a Dünenpionierrasen mit einjähr. Vegetation (Thero-Airion)", not defined
German Federal List of Biotopes 1003 Dünenrasen (Graudüne) not defined
German Federal List of Biotopes 1003b Dünenrasen mit geschlossener Narbe u. überwieg. ausdauernden Arten (Graudüne)". not defined
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Phone: +45 3336 7100