EUNIS habitat classification 2012 > C - Inland surface waters > C2 - Surface running waters > C2.1 - Springs, spring brooks and geysers > C2.11 - Soft water springs > C2.111 - Fennoscandian mineral-rich springs and springfens

Fennoscandian mineral-rich springs and springfens

English name: Fennoscandian mineral-rich springs and springfens

Description (English)

Springs and springfens are characterized by continuous flow of groundwater. The water is cold, of even temperature, and rich in oxygen and minerals, due to the rapid percolation. Springs may have a basin where the water wells up and an adjacent outflow with typical vegetation. In springfens the water seeps up through the ground and the accumulated peat, enhancing the growth of specialised vegetation. Since the water originates from deeper layers, these springs often have running water during the winter even if the surrounding areas are frozen and snow-covered. The invertebrate fauna is often very specialised to this habitat and the flora rich in northern species. Vascular plants include Cardamine amara, Chrysosplenium spp., Carex appropinquata, C. capillaris, C. paniculata, Epilobium hornemanni, E. davuricum, E. laestadii, E. alsinifolium, Montia fontana, Poa alpigena, P. remota, P. trivialis, Ranunculus lapponicus, R. hyperboreus, Stellaria alsine, S. calycantha, S. nemorum. Bryophytes- Brachythecium rivulare, Bryum weigelii, B. pseudotriquetrum, B. schleicheri, Calliergon giganteum, C. sarmentosum, Philonotis spp., Pohlia wahlenbergii, Plagiomnium undulatum, Rhizomnium spp., Scapania spp., Warnstorfia exannulata.

Source:
EUNIS habitat classification
Interpretation Manual of the habitats targeted by Resolution No. 4

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code C2.111
Bern Convention Resolution 4 habitat type (used for designation of Emerald sites)
Relation to Annex I habitat types (EU Habitats Directive)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Species mentioned in habitat description

Not available

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
CORINE Land Cover 4.1.1. Inland marshes n/a
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 C2.111 Fennoscandian mineral-rich springs and springfens same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 C2.111 Fennoscandian mineral-rich springs and springfens same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 C2.111 Fennoscandian mineral-rich springs and springfens same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 C2.111 Fennoscandian mineral-rich springs and springfens same
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