EUNIS habitat classification 2012 > C - Inland surface waters > C2 - Surface running waters > C2.1 - Springs, spring brooks and geysers

Springs, spring brooks and geysers

English name: Springs, spring brooks and geysers

Description (English)

Springs and resurgences, together with animal and plant communities dependent on the peculiar microclimatic and hydrological situation created by them. Excludes vegetated spring mires (D2.2, D4.1), where springs emerge through a (usually small) expanse of vegetation with little or no open water.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code C2.1
Relation to Annex I habitat types (EU Habitats Directive)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Name Definition Other names Reference
Pinguiculion longifoliae Fernandez Casas 1970 Chomophytic relictual Pinguicula-rich communities of shaded habitats of Mediterranean, North Africa and Middle East Coeno-Pinguiculion Deil 1989 Schaminee et al, 2012
Cratoneuro filicini-Calthion laetae Hadac 1983 Oligotrophic spring communities in shady forest habitats of supramontane and subalpine belts of Western and Eastern Carpathians Schaminee et al, 2012
Cratoneurion commutati Koch 1928 Vegetation of moss-rich calcareous water springs in supramontane and subalpine belts of Europe and Greenland Arabidion jacquinii Julve 1993; Cochlearion alpinae Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et Tx. 1952; Cochlearion pyrenaicae Bardat 2002; Cratoneuro-Saxifragion aizoidis Nordhagen 1936; Endocarpion Br.-Bl. 1948; Palustriellion commutatae Koch 1928 nom. mut. propos. Schaminee et al, 2012
Myosotidion stoloniferae Rivas-Mart. et al. 1984 Vegetation of oroiberian and western orocantabric oligotrophic-water spring communities of Iberian Peninsula Schaminee et al, 2012
Swertio perennis-Anisothecion squarrosi Hadac 1983 Vegetation of oligothrophic water-spring communities of Central European mountains Philonotidion seriatae Hinterlang 1992; Swertio perennis-Dichodontion squarrosi Hadac 1983 nom. mut. propos. Schaminee et al, 2012
Lycopodo europaei-Cratoneurion commutati Hadac 1983 Vegetation of moss-rich calcareous water springs in colline to submontane belts of mountains of Central Europe Schaminee et al, 2012
Caricion remotae Kästner 1941 Communities of muddy water-springs in shaded forest habitats of lowland to montane belt of middle and northwestern Europe Cardaminion Maas 1959; Ranunculo repentis-Impatiention noli-tangere Passarge 1967; Caricion remotae Kästner 1940 Schaminee et al, 2012
Koenigio-Microjuncion Sörensen ex Hadac 1971 Vegetation of clayey and sandy-clayey flats around water springs and on shore of lakes of Iceland and Greenland Koenigio-Microjuncion Sörensen 1942 Schaminee et al, 2012
Pinguiculo balcanicae-Cardaminion acris Carni et Matevski 2010 Vegetation of oligotrophic water springs in subalpine zone of Central and Southern Balkan mountain ranges Heliospermo-Saxifragion stellaris Redžic 2000 Schaminee et al, 2012
Epilobio nutantis-Montion Zechmeister in Zechmeister et Mucina 1994 Vegetation of oligotrophic water-springs in submontane and montane belts of mountains of Western Europe Epilobio nutantis-Montion Zechmeister 1993 Schaminee et al, 2012
Cardamino-Montion Br.-Bl. 1926 Vegetation of cold oligothrophic water-springs in subalpine and alpine belts of mountains of middle and southwestern Europe Montio-Cardaminion Pawlowski et al. 1928; Montion Maas 1959 Schaminee et al, 2012
Mniobryo-Epilobion hornemannii Nordhagen 1943 Vegetation of cold oligotrophic water-springs of boreal and arctic zones of northern Europe and Greenland Anthelion julaceae Shimwell 1972; Cardamino nymannii-Saxifragion foliolosae Hadac 1989; Montio-Epilobion hornemannii Nordhagen 1936 Schaminee et al, 2012
Adiantion Br.-Bl. ex Horvatic 1934 Fern-rich chasmophytic communities of water-splashed habitats of mild-climate regions of Mediterranean, North Africa and Middle East Adiantion Br.-Bl. 1931; Adiantion Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et al. 1947; Adiantion Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et al. 1952 Schaminee et al, 2012
Ranunculion omiophyllo-hederacei Rivas-Mart. et al. 2002 Vegetation of stoloniferous helophytes in muddy water-springs in meso- and oro-mediterranean belts of Western Mediterranean Schaminee et al, 2012

Species mentioned in habitat description

Not available

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 200112 54.1 Spring mires same
CORINE Land Cover 4.1.1. Inland marshes n/a
Phase 1 habitat classification (UK) 1993 E22 Flush and spring: basic narrower
Phase 1 habitat classification (UK) 1993 E2 Flush and spring narrower
Phase 1 habitat classification (UK) 1993 E23 Flush and spring: bryophyte-dominated spring narrower
Phase 1 habitat classification (UK) 1993 E21 Flush and spring: acid/neutral narrower
Milieux Naturels de Suisse 1998 1.3 Sources et suintements same
Biotopes of Slovakia 1996 8110000 Prameniská n/a
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 C2.1 Springs, spring brooks and geysers same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 C2.1 Springs, spring brooks and geysers same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 C2.1 Springs, spring brooks and geysers same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 C2.1 Springs, spring brooks and geysers same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 C2.3 Springs and geysers same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199712 C2.3 Springs and geysers same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 199905 54.1 Springs same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1997 54.1 Springs same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1996 54.1   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1993 54.1   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1991 54.1   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1989 54.1   same
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