Kingdom: Animalia > Phylum: Chordata > Class: Mammalia > Order: Carnivora > Family: Phocidae > Genus: Phoca > Species: Phoca vitulina

Common seal - Phoca vitulina Linnaeus, 1758

Images from the web

Quick facts

Threat status Europe Least Concern (IUCN)
EU conservation status by biogeographical region Marine Atlantic - Unfavourable-Bad
Marine Baltic - Unfavourable-Bad
Marine Macaronesian - Unknown
Protected by EU Habitats Directive and 4 other international agreements
Natura 2000 sites 162 are designated for this species
Most preferred habitats
  • coastal
  • marine inlets and transitional waters
May also occur in
  • shelf
Natura 2000 species code 1365

Distribution

The distribution map is currently disabled. A new map solution will soon become available. In the meantime, please consult other species distribution map providers listed in the Other resources panel below.

Threat and conservation status

IUCN Red List status of threatened species

The IUCN Red List threat status assesses the risk of extinction.

IUCN Red List Category
Not Evaluated
Near Threatened
Regionally Extinct
Not Applicable
Vulnerable
Extinct in the Wild
Data Deficient
Endangered
Extinct
Least Concern
Critically Endangered

EU conservation status

Conservation status assesses every six years and for each biogeographical region the condition of habitats and species compared to the favourable status as described in the Habitats Directive. The map shows the 2007-2012 assessments as reported by EU Member State. Assessments are further detailed in the summary document available behind the link below.

Natura 2000 sites

Protected in the following Natura 2000 sites

Sitecode Country Site name Action
BEMNZ0001 Belgium Vlaamse Banken Map
DE1749301 Germany Greifswalder Oie Map
DE2016301 Germany Hamburgisches Wattenmeer Map
DE2306301 Germany Nationalpark Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer Map
DE2424302 Germany Mühlenberger Loch/Neßsand Map
DK002X110 Denmark Saltholm og omliggende hav Map
DK002X111 Denmark Vestamager og havet syd for Map
DK003X202 Denmark Hesselø med omliggende stenrev Map
DK003X203 Denmark Gilbjerg Hoved Map
DK003X208 Denmark Tisvilde Hegn og Melby Overdrev Map
DK005X221 Denmark Sejerø Bugt og Saltbæk Vig Map
DK005X276 Denmark Røsnæs, Røsnæs Rev og Kalundborg Fjord Map
DK005Y220 Denmark Havet og kysten mellem Hundested og Rørvig Map
DK006X233 Denmark Havet og kysten mellem Præstø Fjord og Grønsund Map
DK006X234 Denmark Havet og kysten mellem Karrebæk Fjord og Knudshoved Odde Map
DK006X238 Denmark Smålandsfarvandet nord for Lolland, Guldborg Sund, Bøtø Nor og Hyllekrog-Rødsand Map
DK008X183 Denmark Fyns Hoved, Lillegrund og Lillestrand Map
DK008X184 Denmark Æbelø, havet syd for og Nærå Map
DK008X190 Denmark Centrale Storebælt og Vresen Map
DK00AY176 Denmark Vadehavet med Ribe Å, Tved Å og Varde Å vest for Varde Map
DK00CY040 Denmark Venø, Venø Sund Map
DK00DX146 Denmark Anholt og havet nord for Map
DK00DX151 Denmark Begtrup Vig og kystområder ved Helgenæs Map
DK00DX155 Denmark Stavns Fjord, Samsø Østerflak og Nordby Hede Map
DK00DX321 Denmark Kaløskovene og Kaløvig Map
DK00DY156 Denmark Horsens Fjord, havet øst for og Endelave Map
DK00EX026 Denmark Dråby Vig Map
DK00EY124 Denmark Løgstør Bredning, Vejlerne og Bulbjerg Map
DK00EY133 Denmark Agger Tange, Nissum Bredning, Skibsted Fjord og Agerø Map
DK00EY134 Denmark Lovns Bredning, Hjarbæk Fjord og Skals, Simested og Nørre Ådal, samt Skravad Bæk Map
DK00FX010 Denmark Strandenge på Læsø og havet syd herfor Map
DK00FX112 Denmark Skagens Gren og Skagerrak Map
DK00FX113 Denmark Hirsholmene, havet vest herfor og Ellinge Å?s udløb Map
DK00FX122 Denmark Ålborg Bugt, Randers Fjord og Mariager Fjord Map
DK00FX123 Denmark Nibe Bredning, Halkær Ådal og Sønderup Ådal Map
DK00FX257 Denmark Havet omkring Nordre Rønner Map
DK00VA250 Denmark Store Middelgrund Map
DK00VA347 Denmark Sydlige Nordsø Map
FR2200346 France Estuaires et littoral picards (baies de Somme et d'Authie) Map
FR2300121 France Estuaire de la Seine Map
FR2300139 France Littoral Cauchois Map
FR2500077 France Baie du mont Saint-Michel Map
FR2500079 France Chausey Map
FR2500080 France Littoral Ouest du Cotentin de Bréhal à Pirou Map
FR2500084 France Récifs et landes de la Hague Map
FR2500085 France Récifs et marais arrière-littoraux du Cap Lévi à la Pointe de Saire Map
FR2500088 France Marais du Cotentin et du Bessin - Baie des Veys Map
FR3100474 France Dunes de la plaine maritime flamande Map
FR3100478 France Falaises du Cran aux Oeufs et du Cap Gris-Nez, Dunes du Chatelet, Marais de Tardinghen et Dunes de Wissant Map
FR3100479 France Falaises et dunes de Wimereux, estuaire de la Slack, Garennes et Communaux d'Ambleteuse-Audresselles Map
FR3100480 France Estuaire de la Canche, dunes picardes plaquées sur l'ancienne falaise, forêt d'Hardelot et falaise d'Equihen Map
FR3100482 France Dunes de l'Authie et Mollières de Berck Map
FR5300012 France Baie de Lancieux, Baie de l'Arguenon, Archipel de Saint Malo et Dinard Map
FR5300046 France Rade de Brest, estuaire de l'Aulne Map
IE0000090 Ireland Glengarriff Harbour and Woodland SAC Map
IE0000133 Ireland Donegal Bay (Murvagh) SAC Map
IE0000197 Ireland West of Ardara/Maas Road SAC Map
IE0000204 Ireland Lambay Island SAC Map
IE0000268 Ireland Galway Bay Complex SAC Map
IE0000458 Ireland Killala Bay/Moy Estuary SAC Map
IE0000622 Ireland Ballysadare Bay SAC Map
IE0000627 Ireland Cummeen Strand/Drumcliff Bay (Sligo Bay) SAC Map
IE0000781 Ireland Slaney River Valley SAC Map
IE0001482 Ireland Clew Bay Complex SAC Map
IE0002111 Ireland Kilkieran Bay and Islands SAC Map
IE0002158 Ireland Kenmare River SAC Map
IE0002283 Ireland Rutland Island and Sound SAC Map
NL1000001 Netherlands Waddenzee Map
NL3009016 Netherlands Oosterschelde Map
NL4000017 Netherlands Voordelta Map
NL9802001 Netherlands Noordzeekustzone Map
NL9803061 Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe Map
SE0330108 Sweden Ottenby NR Map
SE0330109 Sweden Eckelsudde Map
SE0330123 Sweden Värnanäs skärgård Map
SE0330174 Sweden Sydöstra Ölands sjömarker Map
SE0410113 Sweden Isaks kläpp Map
SE0420002 Sweden Hallands Väderö Map
SE0430095 Sweden Falsterbohalvön Map
SE0510050 Sweden Balgö Map
SE0510058 Sweden Kungsbackafjorden Map
SE0510084 Sweden Nidingen Map
SE0520001 Sweden Vrångöskärgården Map
SE0520036 Sweden Sälöfjorden Map
SE0520043 Sweden Nordre älvs estuarium Map
SE0520170 Sweden Kosterfjorden-Väderöfjorden Map
SE0520171 Sweden Gullmarsfjorden Map
SE0520176 Sweden Pater Noster-skärgården Map
UK0012687 United Kingdom Yell Sound Coast Map
UK0012711 United Kingdom Mousa Map
UK0013690 United Kingdom Essex Estuaries Map
UK0016612 United Kingdom Murlough Map
UK0016618 United Kingdom Strangford Lough Map
UK0017070 United Kingdom Loch nam Madadh Map
UK0017075 United Kingdom The Wash and North Norfolk Coast Map
UK0017077 United Kingdom Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs Map
UK0019802 United Kingdom Sound of Arisaig (Loch Ailort to Loch Ceann Traigh) Map
UK0019803 United Kingdom Sunart Map
UK0019804 United Kingdom North Uist Machair Map
UK0019806 United Kingdom Dornoch Firth and Morrich More Map
UK0019808 United Kingdom Moray Firth Map
UK0030059 United Kingdom Solent Maritime Map
UK0030067 United Kingdom South-East Islay Skerries Map
UK0030069 United Kingdom Sanday Map
UK0030182 United Kingdom Eileanan agus Sgeiran Lios mór Map
UK0030190 United Kingdom Loch Creran Map
UK0030230 United Kingdom Ascrib, Isay and Dunvegan Map
UK0030311 United Kingdom Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary Map
BEMNZ0004 Belgium SBZ 3 / ZPS 3 Map
DE1542302 Germany Recknitz-Ästuar und Halbinsel Zingst Map
DE1209301 Germany Sylter Außenriff Map
BEMNZ0005 Belgium Vlakte van de Raan Map
DE1541301 Germany Darß Map
DE2018331 Germany Unterelbe Map
DE1446302 Germany Nordrügensche Boddenlandschaft Map
BEMNZ0002 Belgium SBZ 1 / ZPS 1 Map
NL2007001 Netherlands Eems-Dollard Map
DE1544302 Germany Westrügensche Boddenlandschaft mit Hiddensee Map
DE2104301 Germany Borkum-Riffgrund Map
DE1813391 Germany Helgoland mit Helgoländer Felssockel Map
DE1934302 Germany Wismarbucht Map
DE1011401 Germany SPA Östliche Deutsche Bucht Map
DE2031301 Germany Küste Klützer Winkel und Ufer von Dassower See und Trave Map
BEMNZ0003 Belgium SBZ 2 / ZPS 2 Map
UK0030170 United Kingdom Humber Estuary Map
DE1714391 Germany Steingrund Map
DE1332301 Germany Fehmarnbelt Map
DE1003301 Germany Doggerbank Map
DE2507331 Germany Unterems und Außenems Map
DE1747301 Germany Greifswalder Bodden, Teile des Strelasundes und Nordspitze Usedom Map
DE2323392 Germany Schleswig-Holsteinisches Elbästuar und angrenzende Flächen Map
DE0916391 Germany NTP S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete Map
DE1345301 Germany Erweiterung Libben, Steilküste und Blockgründe Wittow und Arkona Map
DE1540302 Germany Darßer Schwelle Map
DE1934303 Germany Erweiterung Wismarbucht Map
DE1749302 Germany Greifswalder Boddenrandschwelle und Teile der Pommerschen Bucht Map
DE2507301 Germany Hund und Paapsand Map
DE1343301 Germany Plantagenetgrund Map
SE0520058 Sweden Måseskär Map
SE0520057 Sweden Malmöfjord Map
SE0520188 Sweden Soteskär Map
FR3102003 France Récifs Gris-Nez Blanc-Nez Map
FR3102005 France Baie de Canche et couloir des trois estuaires Map
FR2502020 France Baie de Seine occidentale Map
FR2502019 France Anse de Vauville Map
FR2502021 France Baie de Seine orientale Map
FR2502018 France Banc et récifs de Surtainville Map
NL2008003 Netherlands Vlakte van de Raan Map
NL2008002 Netherlands Klaverbank Map
NL2008001 Netherlands Doggersbank Map
FR3102004 France Ridens et dunes hydrauliques du détroit du Pas-de-Calais Map
FR3102002 France Bancs des Flandres Map
UK0030055 United Kingdom Rathlin Island Map
UK0030352 United Kingdom Dogger Bank Map
UK0030386 United Kingdom Solan Bank Reef Map
UK0030379 United Kingdom Pisces Reef Complex Map
UK0012705 United Kingdom Sound of Barra Map
UK0030383 United Kingdom Skerries and Causeway Map
UK0030384 United Kingdom The Maidens Map
UK0030385 United Kingdom Pobie Bank Reef Map
IE0003000 Ireland Rockabill to Dalkey Island SAC Map
IE0002998 Ireland West Connacht Coast SAC Map

Protected sites

Please note the site map takes a while to display.

Legal status

Legal text Annex Conditions More information
Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora - consolidated version 01/01/2007 (EU Habitats Directive) http://ec.europa.eu/environm...rective/index_en.htm
Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats (Bern Convention) http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cul.../bern/default_en.asp
https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc....ckColorLogged=FDC864

Resolution No. 6 (1998) of the Bern Convention lists the species requiring specific habitat conservation measures [and the designation of Areas of Special Conservation Interest (ASCIs) forming for the Emerald network]
Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. (Bonn Convention) Only Baltic and Wadden Sea populations http://www.cms.int/
Agreement on the Conservation of Seals in the Wadden Sea. Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals. (Bonn Convention. Wadden Sea Seals.) http://www.migratoryspecies....ent/about-cms-family

http://www.waddensea-secreta...ment/seal-management

Common names and synonyms

Common Name Language Reference
Borjúfóka Hungarian Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Common seal English Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Foca común Spanish EC-DGXI.d2, ETC/NC
Foca comune Italian Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Foca moteada Spanish Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Foca-vitulina Portuguese Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Foka pospolita Polish Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Gewone zeehond Dutch Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Harbour seal English Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Kirjohylje Finnish Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Knubbsäl Swedish Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Landselur Icelandic Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Liman focu Turkish Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Navadni tjulenj Slovenian Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Paprastasis ruonis Lithuanian Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Phoque veau-marin French Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Plankumainais ronis Latvian Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Randalhüljes Estonian Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Seehund German Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Séihond Luxemburgish Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Spættet sæl Danish Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
Steinkobbe Norwegian Mitchell-Jones, A.J. & al.
No synonyms available.

Other resources

CoL (accepted name) Catalogue of Life
EoL Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea Fauna Europaea
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Habitats Directive Art. 17-2006 summary
ITIS (Valid name) Interagency Taxonomic Information System
NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information
PESI (Accepted) Pan-European Species directories Infrastructure
Wikipedia Wikipedia
WoRMS World Register of Marine Species

External data

Reportnet deliveries

Files delivered through Reportnet with relevance to this species.

22 items found, displaying all items.1
Released Coverage Envelope File
2015-12-10 France France reporting Habitas Directive 2014 corrected files Auvergne
2015-12-10 France France reporting Habitas Directive 2014 corrected files PACA
2015-11-17 Netherlands Habitats Directive Derogations 2013-2014 HD_derogations2013_2014_NL.xml
2014-11-18 Belgium Derogation Belgium HD 2011-2012 Report for Flanders
2014-02-03 Netherlands Habitats Directive Derogations 2011-2012 Habitats Directive Derogations 2011 2012
2013-12-29 Sweden Report on Implementation Measures (Art.17.1)_delivery 2013 SE_species_reports-131230-111623.xml
2013-12-08 Poland Habitats Directive Art. 17 Report PL_species_reports.xml
2013-10-10 United Kingdom Habitats Directive Article 17 2013 2nd submission UK GB_species_reports-13925-15297.xml
2013-09-18 Portugal Relatorio nacional sobre a implementacao da Directiva Habitats 2013 PT_species_reports.xml
2013-09-16 Belgium Second Release Art17 Belgium BE_species_reports-13916-154440.xml
2011-11-10 United Kingdom Directive 92/43/EEC: Derogation under Article 16: Report by the UK for 2009-2010 DOENI contribution to 92/43/EEC Article 16 UK Report
2011-10-17 Poland National Report on Derogations under the Birds and Habitats Directives (2009-2010) habitat derogations
2008-04-10 Germany German national report Phoca vitulina
2008-03-16 Netherlands NL Report HR 2007 Phoca vitulina
2008-02-27 France rapport France Phoca vitulina
2008-02-25 Denmark DK Species questionnaire for Phoca vitulina
2008-02-24 United Kingdom UK_submission Phoca vitulina
2008-02-24 Portugal Relatório nacional sobre a implementação da Directiva Habitats Species questionnaire for Phoca vitulina
2008-01-15 Belgium Natura 2000 habitat report Species questionnaire for Phoca vitulina
2008-01-10 Ireland Habitats Directive Article 17 report Phoca vitulina
2007-10-02 Sweden Report on Implementation Measures (Art.17.1)_delivery 2007 Species questionnaire for Phoca vitulina
2007-10-01 Poland Report on Implementation Measures Species questionnaire for Phoca vitulina

Summary of derogations for species

EU member states are required to report derogations from protection efforts of species.

29 items found, displaying all items.1
Region From Until Justification Activity Impact
Netherlands 2014-12-04 2017-06-30 No information available Capture The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Netherlands 2014-12-04 2017-06-30 No information available Transport The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Netherlands 2014-12-04 2017-06-30 No information available Killing The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Groningen 2014-12-04 2017-06-30 No information available Capture The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Groningen 2014-12-04 2017-06-30 No information available Transport The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Groningen 2014-12-04 2017-06-30 No information available Killing The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Friesland (NL) 2014-12-04 2017-06-30 No information available Capture The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Friesland (NL) 2014-12-04 2017-06-30 No information available Transport The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Friesland (NL) 2014-12-04 2017-06-30 No information available Killing The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Zuid-Holland 2014-12-04 2017-06-30 No information available Capture The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Zuid-Holland 2014-12-04 2017-06-30 No information available Transport The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Zuid-Holland 2014-12-04 2017-06-30 No information available Killing The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Groningen 2014-12-02 2019-12-01 No information available Transport The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Groningen 2014-12-02 2019-12-01 No information available Necropsy The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Groningen 2014-12-02 2019-12-01 No information available Biopsie on seals The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Netherlands 2014-09-17 2019-09-16 No information available Transport The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Netherlands 2014-09-17 2019-09-16 No information available Transport The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Netherlands 2014-09-17 2019-09-16 No information available Capture for keeping in captivity The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Gelderland 2014-07-25 2019-07-25 No information available Keeping (in captivity) The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Zuid-Holland 2014-07-21 2017-07-01 No information available Capture The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Zuid-Holland 2014-07-21 2017-07-01 No information available Transport The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Zuid-Holland 2014-07-21 2017-07-01 No information available Killing The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Groningen 2014-01-01 2016-12-31 No information available Destruction of breeding sites The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Groningen 2014-01-01 2016-12-31 No information available Destruction of resting places The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Groningen 2014-01-01 2016-12-31 No information available Unavoidable disturbance due to construction activities The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Zeeland 2013-03-07 2014-12-31 No information available Unavoidable disturbance due to construction activities The national conservation status of the species concerned is not affected, neither is the local population, as long as the activities are carried out in accordance with the conditions and measures that are bound to the exemption.
Northern Ireland (UK) 2009-03-17 2010-03-31 no limit set but each licence is restricted in its location Killing nil Grey seals UK waters 120 000 Harbour Seals in UK water 60 000
Northern Ireland (UK) 2009-03-17 2010-03-31 no limit set but each licence is restricted in its location Deliberate disturbance during the period of breeding nil Grey seals UK waters 120 000 Harbour Seals in UK water 60 000
Northern Ireland (UK) 2009-03-17 2010-03-31 no limit set but each licence is restricted in its location Deliberate disturbance during the period of rearing nil Grey seals UK waters 120 000 Harbour Seals in UK water 60 000
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100