Fucus spiralis on sheltered upper eulittoral rock

English name: Fucus spiralis on sheltered upper eulittoral rock

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code A1.312

Description (English)

Sheltered upper eulittoral bedrock is typically characterised by a band of the spiral wrack Fucus spiralis overlying the black lichen Verrucaria maura. Underneath the fronds of F. spiralis and the occasional Pelvetia canaliculata is a community consisting of the limpet Patella vulgata, the winkles Littorina saxatilis and Littorina littorea and the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. The rock surface can often be covered by the red crust Hildenbrandia rubra. During the summer months the ephemeral green seaweed Enteromorpha intestinalis can be common. Two variants have been described: Upper eulittoral bedrock characterised by F. spiralis, the black lichen Verrucaria maura and the olive green lichen Verrucaria mucosa (unit A1.3121). Upper eulittoral mixed substrata characterised by F. spiralis with occasional clumps of the wrack Pelvetia canaliculata (unit A1.3122). Note that a F. spiralis biotope in variable salinity conditions (A1.322) has also been descibed.
Situation: This zone usually lies below a zone dominated by the wrack Pelvetia canaliculata (units A1.211: A1.311), but occasional clumps of P. canaliculata may be present (usually less than common) amongst the F. spiralis. In areas of extreme shelter, such as in Scottish sea lochs, the P. canaliculata and F. spiralis zones often merge together forming a very narrow band. A1.312 occurs above the wracks Ascophyllum nodosum (A1.314) and/or Fucus vesiculosus (A1.313) zones and these two fucoids may also occur, although F. spiralis always dominates. Vertical surfaces in this zone, especially on moderately exposed shores, often lack the fucoids and are characterised by a barnacle-limpet dominated community (A1.113).

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Species mentioned in habitat description

Algae Ascophyllum nodosum
Algae Enteromorpha intestinalis
Algae Fucus spiralis
Algae Fucus vesiculosus
Algae Hildenbrandia rubra
Invertebrates Littorina littorea
Invertebrates Littorina saxatilis
Invertebrates Patella vulgata
Algae Pelvetia canaliculata
Invertebrates Semibalanus balanoides
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Ascophyllum nodosum Algae
Enteromorpha intestinalis Algae
Fucus spiralis Algae
Fucus vesiculosus Algae
Hildenbrandia rubra Algae
Littorina littorea Invertebrates
Littorina saxatilis Invertebrates
Patella vulgata Invertebrates
Pelvetia canaliculata Algae
Semibalanus balanoides Invertebrates

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
Marine Habitat Classification Britain/Ireland 0405 LR.LLR.F.Fspi <I>Fucus spiralis</I> on sheltered upper eulittoral rock source
CORINE Land Cover 4.2.3. Intertidal flats n/a
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 A1.312 Fucus spiralis on sheltered upper eulittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 A1.312 Fucus spiralis on moderately exposed to very sheltered upper eulittoral rock wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 A1.312 Fucus spiralis on moderately exposed to very sheltered upper eulittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 A1.312 Fucus spiralis on moderately exposed to very sheltered upper eulittoral rock same
MNCR BioMar 97.06 (Britain & Ireland) SLR.F.Fspi Fucus spiralis on moderately exposed to very sheltered upper eulittoral rock same
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