Foliose red seaweeds on exposed lower infralittoral rock

English name: Foliose red seaweeds on exposed lower infralittoral rock

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code A3.116
Bern Convention Included in a Resolution 4 habitat type at a higher level (A3)

Description (English)

A dense turf of foliose red seaweeds on exposed or moderately exposed lower infralittoral rock, generally, at or below the lower limit of the kelp. Most of the red seaweeds are common to the kelp zone above, while the faunal component of the biotope is made up of species that are found either in the kelp zone or the animal-dominated upper circalittoral below. Foliose species commonly present include Dilsea carnosa, Hypoglossum hypoglossoides, Schottera nicaeensis, Cryptopleura ramosa and Delesseria sanguinea. The red seaweed species composition varies considerably; at some sites a single species may dominate (particularly Plocamium cartilagineum). Small filamentous red seaweeds can be found here as well. These include species such as Heterosiphonia plumosa, Brongniartella byssoides. As well as a varied red seaweed component, this biotope may also contain occasional kelp plants and patches of the brown foliose seaweed Dictyota dichotoma. Coralline crusts covers the bedrock beneath the seaweeds. The fauna generally comprises low-encrusting forms such as the tubeworms Pomatoceros spp., anthozoans including Alcyonium digitatum, Urticina felina and Caryophyllia smithii) and occasional sponge crusts such as Cliona celata, Esperiopsis fucorum, Scypha ciliata and Dysidea fragilis. More mobile fauna include the gastropod Calliostoma zizyphinum, the echinoderms Echinus esculentus as well as the starfish Asterias rubens and Marthasterias glacialis and lastly, the crab Cancer pagurus. Bryozoan crusts such as Electra pilosa can be found fronds on the foliose red seaweeds while scattered hydroids such as Nemertesia antennina form colonies on shells, cobbles and available rock. At some sites erect bryozoans Crisia spp. and Bugula spp. are present. Ascidians such as Clavelina lepadiformis and Clavelina lepadiformis may also be common. In the north the foliose red seaweed Callophyllis laciniata may occur.
Situation: This biotope is generally found at or below the lower limit of the kelp, below either kelp forest or park (units A3.1151 and A3.1152).
Temporal variation: Many of the red seaweeds, which occur in this biotope, have annual fronds, which tend to die back in the autumn and regenerate again in the spring. This produces a seasonal change in the density of the seaweed cover, which is substantially reduced over winter months and reaches its most dense between April to September.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Species mentioned in habitat description

Invertebrates Alcyonium digitatum
Invertebrates Asterias rubens
Algae Brongniartella byssoides
Invertebrates Calliostoma zizyphinum
Algae Callophyllis laciniata
Invertebrates Cancer pagurus
Invertebrates Caryophyllia smithii
Invertebrates Clavelina lepadiformis
Invertebrates Cliona celata
Algae Cryptopleura ramosa
Algae Delesseria sanguinea
Algae Dictyota dichotoma
Algae Dilsea carnosa
Invertebrates Dysidea fragilis
Invertebrates Echinus esculentus
Invertebrates Electra pilosa
Invertebrates Esperiopsis fucorum
Algae Heterosiphonia plumosa
Algae Hypoglossum hypoglossoides
Invertebrates Marthasterias glacialis
Invertebrates Nemertesia antennina
Algae Plocamium cartilagineum
Invertebrates Urticina felina
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Alcyonium digitatum Invertebrates
Asterias rubens Invertebrates
Brongniartella byssoides Algae
Calliostoma zizyphinum Invertebrates
Callophyllis laciniata Algae
Cancer pagurus Invertebrates
Caryophyllia smithii Invertebrates
Clavelina lepadiformis Invertebrates
Cliona celata Invertebrates
Cryptopleura ramosa Algae
Delesseria sanguinea Algae
Dictyota dichotoma Algae
Dilsea carnosa Algae
Dysidea fragilis Invertebrates
Echinus esculentus Invertebrates
Electra pilosa Invertebrates
Esperiopsis fucorum Invertebrates
Heterosiphonia plumosa Algae
Hypoglossum hypoglossoides Algae
Marthasterias glacialis Invertebrates
Nemertesia antennina Invertebrates
Plocamium cartilagineum Algae
Urticina felina Invertebrates

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
Marine Habitat Classification Britain/Ireland 0405 IR.HIR.KFaR.FoR Foliose red seaweeds on exposed lower infralittoral rock source
CORINE Land Cover 5.2.3. Sea and ocean n/a
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 A3.116 Foliose red seaweeds on exposed lower infralittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 A3.117 Foliose red seaweeds on exposed or moderately exposed lower infralittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 A3.117 Foliose red seaweeds on exposed or moderately exposed lower infralittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 A3.117 Foliose red seaweeds on exposed or moderately exposed lower infralittoral rock same
MNCR BioMar 97.06 (Britain & Ireland) EIR.KFaR.FoR Foliose red seaweeds on exposed or moderately exposed lower infralittoral rock same
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