Grazed Laminaria hyperborea park with coralline crusts on lower infralittoral rock

English name: Grazed Laminaria hyperborea park with coralline crusts on lower infralittoral rock

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code A3.2144
Bern Convention Included in a Resolution 4 habitat type at a higher level (A3)

Description (English)

Exposed to moderately exposed Laminaria hyperborea kelp park in some areas is intensively grazed by the urchin Echinus esculentus. The rock surface lacks a significant turf of foliose seaweeds and generally looks bare, though coralline algal crusts and some grazing-resistant animals such as the tube-building polychaete Pomatoceros triqueter cover it. The kelp stipes may or may not be grazed; in the most extremely grazed areas, the stipes are also devoid of seaweeds. More usually, however, the stipes offers a refuge from grazing, and are characterised by dense turfs of red seaweeds, especially Phycodrys rubens and Delesseria sanguinea. Brown seaweeds present include Cutleria multifida, Laminaria saccharina and Dictyota dichotoma. The fauna within a grazed kelp park is also relatively sparse, though some species will survive in cracks and crevices or under boulders including the ascidian Clavelina lepadiformis. The encrusting bryozoan Parasmittina trispinosa and the anthozoans Alcyonium digitatum, Urticina felina and Caryophyllia smithii often characterise vertical or overhanging rock. Mobile species include the gastropods Gibbula cineraria and Calliostoma zizyphinum and the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus The echinoderms Ophiocomina nigra, Ophiothrix fragilis and Crossaster papposus, generally absent from the kelp forest, can be found in these kelp parks along with Asterias rubens and Antedon bifida.
Situation: This biotope generally occurs below a grazed kelp forest (unit A3.2143) but can also occur below ungrazed kelp forests on exposed sites where wave action can dislodge urchins from shallow rock. The grazed circalittoral unit A4.214 often occurs on the bedrock or boulders below.
Temporal variation: Fluctuations in the numbers of E. esculentus may give foliose seaweeds a chance to re-grow periodically. Further information is required on the temporal variation within these grazed kelp parks and the changes in community structure when grazing pressure decreases.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Species mentioned in habitat description

Invertebrates Alcyonium digitatum
Invertebrates Antedon bifida
Invertebrates Asterias rubens
Invertebrates Calliostoma zizyphinum
Invertebrates Caryophyllia smithii
Invertebrates Clavelina lepadiformis
Invertebrates Crossaster papposus
Algae Cutleria multifida
Algae Delesseria sanguinea
Algae Dictyota dichotoma
Invertebrates Echinus esculentus
Invertebrates Gibbula cineraria
Algae Laminaria hyperborea
Algae Laminaria saccharina
Invertebrates Ophiocomina nigra
Invertebrates Ophiothrix fragilis
Invertebrates Pagurus bernhardus
Invertebrates Parasmittina trispinosa
Algae Phycodrys rubens
Invertebrates Pomatoceros triqueter
Invertebrates Urticina felina
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Alcyonium digitatum Invertebrates
Antedon bifida Invertebrates
Asterias rubens Invertebrates
Calliostoma zizyphinum Invertebrates
Caryophyllia smithii Invertebrates
Clavelina lepadiformis Invertebrates
Crossaster papposus Invertebrates
Cutleria multifida Algae
Delesseria sanguinea Algae
Dictyota dichotoma Algae
Echinus esculentus Invertebrates
Gibbula cineraria Invertebrates
Laminaria hyperborea Algae
Laminaria saccharina Algae
Ophiocomina nigra Invertebrates
Ophiothrix fragilis Invertebrates
Pagurus bernhardus Invertebrates
Parasmittina trispinosa Invertebrates
Phycodrys rubens Algae
Pomatoceros triqueter Invertebrates
Urticina felina Invertebrates

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
Marine Habitat Classification Britain/Ireland 0405 IR.MIR.KR.Lhyp.GzPk Grazed <I>Laminaria hyperborea</I> park with coralline crusts on lower infralittoral rock source
CORINE Land Cover 5.2.3. Sea and ocean n/a
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 A3.2144 Grazed Laminaria hyperborea park with coralline crusts on lower infralittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 A3.221 Grazed Laminaria hyperborea with coralline crusts on infralittoral rock wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 A3.2212 Grazed Laminaria hyperborea park with coralline crusts on lower infralittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 A3.2212 Grazed Laminaria hyperborea park with coralline crusts on lower infralittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 A3.2212 Grazed Laminaria hyperborea park with coralline crusts on lower infralittoral rock same
MNCR BioMar 97.06 (Britain & Ireland) MIR.GzK.LhypGz.Pk Grazed Laminaria hyperborea park with coralline crusts on lower infralittoral rock same
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