EUNIS habitat classification 2012 amended 2019 > A - Marine habitats > A3 - Infralittoral rock and other hard substrata > A3.1 - Atlantic and Mediterranean high energy infralittoral rock > A3.12 - Sediment-affected or disturbed kelp and seaweed communities > A3.125 - Mixed kelps with scour-tolerant and opportunistic foliose red seaweeds on scoured or sand-covered infralittoral rock

Mixed kelps with scour-tolerant and opportunistic foliose red seaweeds on scoured or sand-covered infralittoral rock

English name: Mixed kelps with scour-tolerant and opportunistic foliose red seaweeds on scoured or sand-covered infralittoral rock

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code A3.125
Bern Convention Included in a Resolution 4 habitat type at a higher level (A3)

Description (English)

Bedrock and boulders, often in tide-swept areas, that are subject to scouring or periodic burial by sand, characterised by a canopy of mixed kelps such as Laminaria saccharina, Laminaria hyperborea and Saccorhiza polyschides and the brown seaweed Desmarestia aculeata; there may also be an understorey of foliose seaweeds that can withstand scour such as Plocamium cartilagineum, Chondrus crispus, Dilsea carnosa, Callophyllis laciniata as well as the filamentous Heterosiphonia plumosa and the foliose brown seaweed Dictyota dichotoma. The perennial red seaweed Brongniartella byssoides re-grows in the summer months. The L. hyperborea stipes often support a growth of epiphytes, such as Delesseria sanguinea, Phycodrys rubens and Cryptopleura ramosa. The scour can reduce the rock surface to bare coralline crusts at times; sponge crusts and the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri can also grow on the stipes and holdfasts. The faunal diversity on the rock is usually low and restricted to robust, low-profile animals such as the tube-building polychaete Pomatoceros triqueter, the barnacle Balanus crenatus, encrusting bryozoans such as Membranipora membranacea, the anthozoan Urticina felina, the starfish Asterias rubens and the urchin Echinus esculentus. Deeper sites support more hydroids and bryozoans, particularly Bugula spp. Where this biotope occurs in very shallow water Laminaria digitata may be found in combination with the other kelp species. Other species present only in shallow water include the red algae Corallina officinalis and the sand-binding alga Rhodothamniella floridula.
Situation: This biotope often occurs below a L. hyperborea forest (unit A3.1151, A3.2141 or A3.2121), close to a rock-sediment boundary. It is also found on low-lying rock outcrops surrounded by sand or mixed sediment and nearby biotopes on mixed substrata may include units A1.45, A3.127 or in very shallow water A3.123. A Flustra foliacea community (A4.134) often dominates deeper sand-scoured circalittoral rock.
Temporal variation: During late autumn and winter seaweeds are sparse, leaving predominantly kelp and encrusting coralline algae. This is due in part to periods of intense scouring during stormy months, which may strip off all but the most tenacious seaweeds. In addition there will be the natural die back of many of the seaweeds such as B. byssoides and C. ciliata during the winter months which become conspicuous again during the summer months.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Species mentioned in habitat description

Invertebrates Asterias rubens
Invertebrates Balanus crenatus
Invertebrates Botryllus schlosseri
Algae Brongniartella byssoides
Algae Callophyllis laciniata
Algae Chondrus crispus
Algae Corallina officinalis
Algae Cryptopleura ramosa
Algae Delesseria sanguinea
Algae Desmarestia aculeata
Algae Dictyota dichotoma
Algae Dilsea carnosa
Invertebrates Echinus esculentus
Invertebrates Flustra foliacea
Algae Heterosiphonia plumosa
Algae Laminaria digitata
Algae Laminaria hyperborea
Algae Laminaria saccharina
Invertebrates Membranipora membranacea
Algae Phycodrys rubens
Algae Plocamium cartilagineum
Invertebrates Pomatoceros triqueter
Algae Rhodothamniella floridula
Algae Saccorhiza polyschides
Invertebrates Urticina felina
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Asterias rubens Invertebrates
Balanus crenatus Invertebrates
Botryllus schlosseri Invertebrates
Brongniartella byssoides Algae
Callophyllis laciniata Algae
Chondrus crispus Algae
Corallina officinalis Algae
Cryptopleura ramosa Algae
Delesseria sanguinea Algae
Desmarestia aculeata Algae
Dictyota dichotoma Algae
Dilsea carnosa Algae
Echinus esculentus Invertebrates
Flustra foliacea Invertebrates
Heterosiphonia plumosa Algae
Laminaria digitata Algae
Laminaria hyperborea Algae
Laminaria saccharina Algae
Membranipora membranacea Invertebrates
Phycodrys rubens Algae
Plocamium cartilagineum Algae
Pomatoceros triqueter Invertebrates
Rhodothamniella floridula Algae
Saccorhiza polyschides Algae
Urticina felina Invertebrates

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
Marine Habitat Classification Britain/Ireland 0405 IR.HIR.KSed.XKScrR Mixed kelps with scour-tolerant and opportunistic foliose red seaweeds on scoured or sand-covered infralittoral rock source
CORINE Land Cover 5.2.3. Sea and ocean n/a
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 A3.125 Mixed kelps with scour-tolerant and opportunistic foliose red seaweeds on scoured or sand-covered infralittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 A3.233 Mixed kelps with scour-tolerant and opportunistic foliose red seaweeds on scoured or sand-covered infralittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 A3.233 Mixed kelps with scour-tolerant and opportunistic foliose red seaweeds on scoured or sand-covered infralittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 A3.233 Mixed kelps with scour-tolerant and opportunistic foliose red seaweeds on scoured or sand-covered infralittoral rock same
MNCR BioMar 97.06 (Britain & Ireland) MIR.SedK.XKScrR Mixed kelps with scour-tolerant and opportunistic foliose red seaweeds on scoured or sand-covered infralittoral rock same
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