Low and medium altitude hay meadow

Description (English)

The most common and widespread kind of traditionally managed meadow in deeper, well-drained mesic soils throughout the lowlands and foothills of temperate Europe, with many local types differing according to regional climate, terrain and mowing traditions. Typically dominated by mixtures of productive grasses and herbs, it can be very species-rich with distinctive scarce and rare plants where traditional regimes of mowing, grazing and manuring are maintained. Often once part of wider agricultural landscapes with associated pastures, it is now widely transformed by shifts to silage production and transitions to intensive silage grasslands are commonplace.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code R22
Relation to Resolution 4 habitat type (used for designation of Emerald sites)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Indicator species

Diagnostic species
Constant species
Dominant species
Flowering Plants Trisetum flavescens
Flowering Plants Ranunculus acris
Flowering Plants Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare
Flowering Plants Rumex acetosa
Flowering Plants Crepis biennis
Flowering Plants Leucanthemum vulgare
Flowering Plants Trifolium pratense
Flowering Plants Arrhenatherum elatius
Flowering Plants Plantago lanceolata
Flowering Plants Achillea millefolium
Flowering Plants Holcus lanatus
Flowering Plants Poa pratensis
Flowering Plants Alopecurus pratensis
Flowering Plants Lathyrus pratensis
Flowering Plants Centaurea jacea

Diagnostic species occur concentrated in the habitat in question, but are absent or rare in other habitats. They are good positive indicators of the habitat, but they do not need to occur in every location of the habitat.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Trisetum flavescens Flowering Plants
Ranunculus acris Flowering Plants
Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare Flowering Plants
Rumex acetosa Flowering Plants
Crepis biennis Flowering Plants
Leucanthemum vulgare Flowering Plants
Trifolium pratense Flowering Plants
Arrhenatherum elatius Flowering Plants
Plantago lanceolata Flowering Plants
Achillea millefolium Flowering Plants
Holcus lanatus Flowering Plants
Poa pratensis Flowering Plants
Alopecurus pratensis Flowering Plants
Lathyrus pratensis Flowering Plants
Centaurea jacea Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Plantago lanceolata
Flowering Plants Dactylis glomerata
Flowering Plants Festuca rubra
Flowering Plants Achillea millefolium
Flowering Plants Holcus lanatus
Flowering Plants Trifolium pratense
Flowering Plants Rumex acetosa
Flowering Plants Anthoxanthum odoratum
Flowering Plants Ranunculus acris
Flowering Plants Poa pratensis
Flowering Plants Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare
Flowering Plants Trifolium repens
Flowering Plants Arrhenatherum elatius
Flowering Plants Agrostis capillaris
Flowering Plants Veronica chamaedrys
Flowering Plants Lotus corniculatus
Flowering Plants Leucanthemum vulgare
Flowering Plants Galium mollugo

Constant species occur frequently in the habitat, but they may include generalist species that are also frequent in other habitats.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Plantago lanceolata Flowering Plants
Dactylis glomerata Flowering Plants
Festuca rubra Flowering Plants
Achillea millefolium Flowering Plants
Holcus lanatus Flowering Plants
Trifolium pratense Flowering Plants
Rumex acetosa Flowering Plants
Anthoxanthum odoratum Flowering Plants
Ranunculus acris Flowering Plants
Poa pratensis Flowering Plants
Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare Flowering Plants
Trifolium repens Flowering Plants
Arrhenatherum elatius Flowering Plants
Agrostis capillaris Flowering Plants
Veronica chamaedrys Flowering Plants
Lotus corniculatus Flowering Plants
Leucanthemum vulgare Flowering Plants
Galium mollugo Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Festuca rubra
Flowering Plants Arrhenatherum elatius
Flowering Plants Agrostis capillaris
Flowering Plants Holcus lanatus

Dominant species are those that often reach high cover in the habitat, thus determining the habitat physiognomy.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Festuca rubra Flowering Plants
Arrhenatherum elatius Flowering Plants
Agrostis capillaris Flowering Plants
Holcus lanatus Flowering Plants

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type Comment
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 E2.1 Permanent mesotrophic pastures and aftermath-grazed meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 E2.2 Low and medium altitude hay meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 E2.1 Permanent mesotrophic pastures and aftermath-grazed meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 E2.2 Low and medium altitude hay meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 E2.2 Low and medium altitude hay meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 E2.1 Permanent mesotrophic pastures and aftermath-grazed meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 E2.2 Coarse permanent grassland and tall herbs, usually mown but little grazed same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 E2.1 Permanent mesotrophic pastures and aftermath-grazed meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 E2.1 Permanent mesotrophic lowland pastures and aftermath-grazed meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 E2.2 Coarse permanent grassland and tall herbs, usually mown but little grazed same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199712 E3.2 Coarse permanent grassland, usually mown but little grazed same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199712 E3.1 Permanent mesotrophic lowland pasture and aftermath-grazed meadow same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 199905 38.1 Mesophile pastures same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 199905 38.2 Lowland and collinar hay meadows same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1997 38.2 Lowland and collinar hay meadows same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1997 38.1 Mesophile pastures same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1996 38.1   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1996 38.2   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1993 38.1   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1993 38.2   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1991 38.2   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1991 38.1   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1989 38.2   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1989 38.1   same
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100