Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina on sheltered infralittoral rock

English name: Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina on sheltered infralittoral rock

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code A3.312
Bern Convention Included in a Resolution 4 habitat type at a higher level (A3)

Description (English)

Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina on bedrock and boulders in sheltered infralittoral habitats. Typically subject to weak tidal streams and rather silty conditions. Beneath the kelp is an associated under-storey flora of foliose red seaweeds including Plocamium cartilagineum, Cryptopleura ramosa and Callophyllis laciniata as well as the brown seaweeds Dictyota dichotoma, Cutleria multifida and Desmarestia aculeata. The stipes of L. hyperborea may be densely covered with red seaweeds such as Phycodrys rubens and Delesseria sanguinea as well as the solitary ascidian Clavelina lepadiformis and the featherstar Antedon bifida. The fronds are often epiphytised by the hydroid Obelia geniculata and the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea. Beneath the kelp canopy, the faunal component is generally less diverse than the more exposed kelp forests, dominated by the echinoderms Echinus esculentus and Asterias rubens, but the tops shells Gibbula cineraria and Calliostoma zizyphinum can be common as well. The crab Necora puber and the brittlestar Ophiothrix fragilis can be found in cracks and crevices, while the tube-building polychaete Pomatoceros triqueter and coralline crusts are present on the rock surface. Although there is a reduced number of species by comparison to the more exposed L. hyperborea forests (A3.2141), there are considerably more algae species than occur in the more sheltered L. saccharina forests (A3.3132). This biotope is predominately found in the shelter of fjordic sealochs in Scotland. Where it does occur in south-west Britain the mixed kelp forest may also include the southern kelp Laminaria ochroleuca. Three variants has been described: The kelp forest in the upper infralittoral (A3.3121), grading to a kelp park with increasing depth (A3.3122) as well as a grazed variant (A3.3123).

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Species mentioned in habitat description

Algae Callophyllis laciniata
Algae Cryptopleura ramosa
Algae Cutleria multifida
Algae Delesseria sanguinea
Algae Desmarestia aculeata
Algae Dictyota dichotoma
Algae Laminaria hyperborea
Algae Laminaria ochroleuca
Algae Laminaria saccharina
Algae Phycodrys rubens
Algae Plocamium cartilagineum
Invertebrates Antedon bifida
Invertebrates Asterias rubens
Invertebrates Calliostoma zizyphinum
Invertebrates Clavelina lepadiformis
Invertebrates Echinus esculentus
Invertebrates Gibbula cineraria
Invertebrates Membranipora membranacea
Invertebrates Necora puber
Invertebrates Obelia geniculata
Invertebrates Ophiothrix fragilis
Invertebrates Pomatoceros triqueter
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Callophyllis laciniata Algae
Cryptopleura ramosa Algae
Cutleria multifida Algae
Delesseria sanguinea Algae
Desmarestia aculeata Algae
Dictyota dichotoma Algae
Laminaria hyperborea Algae
Laminaria ochroleuca Algae
Laminaria saccharina Algae
Phycodrys rubens Algae
Plocamium cartilagineum Algae
Antedon bifida Invertebrates
Asterias rubens Invertebrates
Calliostoma zizyphinum Invertebrates
Clavelina lepadiformis Invertebrates
Echinus esculentus Invertebrates
Gibbula cineraria Invertebrates
Membranipora membranacea Invertebrates
Necora puber Invertebrates
Obelia geniculata Invertebrates
Ophiothrix fragilis Invertebrates
Pomatoceros triqueter Invertebrates

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
Marine Habitat Classification Britain/Ireland 0405 IR.LIR.K.LhypLsac Mixed <I>Laminaria hyperborea</I> and <I>Laminaria saccharina</I> on sheltered infralittoral rock source
CORINE Land Cover 5.2.3. Sea and ocean n/a
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 A3.312 Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina on sheltered infralittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 A3.311 Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina on sheltered infralittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 A3.311 Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina on sheltered infralittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 A3.311 Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina on sheltered infralittoral rock same
MNCR BioMar 97.06 (Britain & Ireland) SIR.K.LhypLsac Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina on sheltered infralittoral rock same
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