Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina forest on sheltered upper infralittoral rock

English name: Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina forest on sheltered upper infralittoral rock

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code A3.3121
Bern Convention Included in a Resolution 4 habitat type at a higher level (A3)

Description (English)

Sheltered, often silted, upper infralittoral bedrock and boulder slopes with mixed kelps Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina and red seaweeds beneath. The kelp at these sheltered sites often has large `cape-form' fronds, which form a dense canopy over the seabed and are often epiphytised by the hydroid Obelia geniculata and the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea. Beneath the kelp, red seaweeds such as Delesseria sanguinea and Cryptopleura ramosa occur on top of encrusting coralline algae. Often, a dense algal turf of Bonnemaisonia hamifera (tetrasporophyte) carpets the rock. The stipes of L. hyperborea may be densely covered with seaweeds such as Phycodrys rubens, Plocamium cartilagineum and Porphyropsis coccinea. There can also be a prominent faunal component on the stipes including the solitary ascidian Clavelina lepadiformis and the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Brown seaweeds, occurring here in low abundance, include Dictyota dichotoma. The kelp Saccorhiza polyschides may also occur but rarely in equal abundance to L. hyperborea or L. saccharina. Beneath the kelp canopy, the faunal component is generally less diverse than the more exposed kelp forests (unit A3.214). The silted rock supports a sparse fauna of gastropods Gibbula cineraria and Calliostoma zizyphinum, the tube-building polychaete Pomatoceros triqueter and occasional starfish Asterias rubens and the urchin Echinus esculentus. Steeper, less silted rock, may have the anthozoans Caryophyllia smithii and Alcyonium digitatum.Sheltered, often silted, upper infralittoral bedrock and boulder slopes with mixed kelps Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina and red seaweeds beneath. The kelp at these sheltered sites often has large `cape-form' fronds, which form a dense canopy over the seabed and are often epiphytised by the hydroid Obelia geniculata and the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea. Beneath the kelp, red seaweeds such as Delesseria sanguinea and Cryptopleura ramosa occur on top of encrusting coralline algae. Often, a dense algal turf of Bonnemaisonia hamifera (tetrasporophyte) carpets the rock. The stipes of L. hyperborea may be densely covered with seaweeds such as Phycodrys rubens, Plocamium cartilagineum and Porphyropsis coccinea. There can also be a prominent faunal component on the stipes including the solitary ascidian Clavelina lepadiformis and the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Brown seaweeds, occurring here in low abundance, include Dictyota dichotoma. The kelp Saccorhiza polyschides may also occur but rarely in equal abundance to L. hyperborea or L. saccharina. Beneath the kelp canopy, the faunal component is generally less diverse than the more exposed kelp forests (A3.214). The silted rock supports a sparse fauna of gastropods Gibbula cineraria and Calliostoma zizyphinum, the tube-building polychaete Pomatoceros triqueter and occasional starfish Asterias rubens and the urchin Echinus esculentus. Steeper, less silted rock, may have the anthozoans Caryophyllia smithii and Alcyonium digitatum.
Situation: This biotope occurs below Laminaria digitata on the sheltered sublittoral fringe (A3.2111) or a mix of L. saccharina and L. digitata in very sheltered conditions (A3.3131). It can also be found on isolated rock exposures amid a sediment seabed (A5.3541 or A5.343). Where suitable substrata allow, the kelp thins out with increased depth to form a park below the forest (A3.3122).

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Species mentioned in habitat description

Invertebrates Alcyonium digitatum
Invertebrates Asterias rubens
Algae Bonnemaisonia hamifera
Invertebrates Botryllus schlosseri
Invertebrates Calliostoma zizyphinum
Invertebrates Caryophyllia smithii
Invertebrates Clavelina lepadiformis
Algae Cryptopleura ramosa
Algae Delesseria sanguinea
Algae Dictyota dichotoma
Invertebrates Echinus esculentus
Invertebrates Gibbula cineraria
Algae Laminaria digitata
Algae Laminaria hyperborea
Algae Laminaria saccharina
Invertebrates Membranipora membranacea
Invertebrates Obelia geniculata
Algae Phycodrys rubens
Algae Plocamium cartilagineum
Invertebrates Pomatoceros triqueter
Algae Porphyropsis coccinea
Algae Saccorhiza polyschides
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Alcyonium digitatum Invertebrates
Asterias rubens Invertebrates
Bonnemaisonia hamifera Algae
Botryllus schlosseri Invertebrates
Calliostoma zizyphinum Invertebrates
Caryophyllia smithii Invertebrates
Clavelina lepadiformis Invertebrates
Cryptopleura ramosa Algae
Delesseria sanguinea Algae
Dictyota dichotoma Algae
Echinus esculentus Invertebrates
Gibbula cineraria Invertebrates
Laminaria digitata Algae
Laminaria hyperborea Algae
Laminaria saccharina Algae
Membranipora membranacea Invertebrates
Obelia geniculata Invertebrates
Phycodrys rubens Algae
Plocamium cartilagineum Algae
Pomatoceros triqueter Invertebrates
Porphyropsis coccinea Algae
Saccorhiza polyschides Algae

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
Marine Habitat Classification Britain/Ireland 0405 IR.LIR.K.LhypLsac.Ft Mixed <I>Laminaria hyperborea</I> and <I>Laminaria saccharina</I> forest on sheltered upper infralittoral rock source
CORINE Land Cover 5.2.3. Sea and ocean n/a
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 A3.3121 Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina forest on sheltered upper infralittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 A3.3111 Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina forest on sheltered upper infralittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 A3.3111 Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina forest on sheltered upper infralittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 A3.3111 Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina forest on sheltered upper infralittoral rock same
MNCR BioMar 97.06 (Britain & Ireland) SIR.K.LhypLsac.Ft Mixed Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria saccharina forest on sheltered upper infralittoral rock same
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