Dark taiga

Description (English)

Forest naturally dominated by spruce (Picea abies and Picea obovata), Siberian fir (Abies sibirica) or Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) on more mesic, usually podzolic soils through the north-eastern continental and boreal regions, often with a subordinate deciduous broadleaf component (e.g. Betula pendula and Betula pubescens) and in places even some Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in the canopy and understorey. The field-layer has a significant participation of dwarf shrubs, bryophytes and lichens. Some forests with Picea or Abies sibirica can be rich in tall herbs.
Remark: Spruce forests of the hemiboreal and boreal zone on brown soils, with a species-rich herb layer consisting of nutrient-demanding forest herbs (e.g. Aegopodium podagraria, Anemone nemorosa, Brachypodium sylvaticum, Hepatica nobilis, Hieracium lachenalii, Hieracium murorum, Lamium galeobdolon, Melica nutans, Mercurialis perennis, Mycelis muralis and Oxalis acetosella) is very different from the taiga spruce forest with a predominance of dwarf shrubs and bryophytes in the field layer. These forests need to be considered as potential new habitat.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code T3F
Relation to Resolution 4 habitat type (used for designation of Emerald sites)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Indicator species

Diagnostic species
Constant species
Dominant species
Conifers Picea abies
Flowering Plants Luzula pilosa
Mosses & Liverworts Hylocomium splendens
Flowering Plants Trientalis europaea
Flowering Plants Maianthemum bifolium
Mosses & Liverworts Pleurozium schreberi
Mosses & Liverworts Ptilium crista-castrensis
Flowering Plants Sorbus aucuparia
Flowering Plants Linnaea borealis
Flowering Plants Betula pubescens
Flowering Plants Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Flowering Plants Vaccinium myrtillus
Flowering Plants Melampyrum pratense
Ferns Gymnocarpium dryopteris
Ferns Equisetum sylvaticum

Diagnostic species occur concentrated in the habitat in question, but are absent or rare in other habitats. They are good positive indicators of the habitat, but they do not need to occur in every location of the habitat.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Picea abies Conifers
Luzula pilosa Flowering Plants
Hylocomium splendens Mosses & Liverworts
Trientalis europaea Flowering Plants
Maianthemum bifolium Flowering Plants
Pleurozium schreberi Mosses & Liverworts
Ptilium crista-castrensis Mosses & Liverworts
Sorbus aucuparia Flowering Plants
Linnaea borealis Flowering Plants
Betula pubescens Flowering Plants
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Flowering Plants
Vaccinium myrtillus Flowering Plants
Melampyrum pratense Flowering Plants
Gymnocarpium dryopteris Ferns
Equisetum sylvaticum Ferns
Conifers Picea abies
Mosses & Liverworts Pleurozium schreberi
Flowering Plants Vaccinium myrtillus
Mosses & Liverworts Hylocomium splendens
Flowering Plants Sorbus aucuparia
Flowering Plants Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Flowering Plants Avenella flexuosa
Flowering Plants Betula pubescens
Flowering Plants Luzula pilosa
Flowering Plants Maianthemum bifolium
Flowering Plants Trientalis europaea
Conifers Pinus sylvestris
Flowering Plants Oxalis acetosella
Flowering Plants Melampyrum pratense
Flowering Plants Solidago virgaurea
Flowering Plants Linnaea borealis
Flowering Plants Rubus idaeus
Mosses & Liverworts Ptilium crista-castrensis
Mosses & Liverworts Polytrichum commune
Ferns Gymnocarpium dryopteris

Constant species occur frequently in the habitat, but they may include generalist species that are also frequent in other habitats.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Picea abies Conifers
Pleurozium schreberi Mosses & Liverworts
Vaccinium myrtillus Flowering Plants
Hylocomium splendens Mosses & Liverworts
Sorbus aucuparia Flowering Plants
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Flowering Plants
Avenella flexuosa Flowering Plants
Betula pubescens Flowering Plants
Luzula pilosa Flowering Plants
Maianthemum bifolium Flowering Plants
Trientalis europaea Flowering Plants
Pinus sylvestris Conifers
Oxalis acetosella Flowering Plants
Melampyrum pratense Flowering Plants
Solidago virgaurea Flowering Plants
Linnaea borealis Flowering Plants
Rubus idaeus Flowering Plants
Ptilium crista-castrensis Mosses & Liverworts
Polytrichum commune Mosses & Liverworts
Gymnocarpium dryopteris Ferns
Conifers Picea abies
Mosses & Liverworts Hylocomium splendens
Mosses & Liverworts Pleurozium schreberi
Flowering Plants Vaccinium myrtillus
Conifers Pinus sylvestris
Flowering Plants Oxalis acetosella

Dominant species are those that often reach high cover in the habitat, thus determining the habitat physiognomy.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Picea abies Conifers
Hylocomium splendens Mosses & Liverworts
Pleurozium schreberi Mosses & Liverworts
Vaccinium myrtillus Flowering Plants
Pinus sylvestris Conifers
Oxalis acetosella Flowering Plants

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 2007 (revised descriptions 2012) G3.A Picea taiga woodland same
European Red List of Habitats G3.A Picea taiga woodland same
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type Comment
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 G3.A Picea taiga woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 G3.A Picea taiga woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 G3.A Picea taiga woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 G3.A Picea taiga woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 G3.A Picea and Abies taiga woodland same
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