Chthamalus spp. on exposed upper eulittoral rock

English name: Chthamalus spp. on exposed upper eulittoral rock

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code A1.112
Bern Convention Included in a Resolution 4 habitat type at a higher level (A1.11)

Description (English)

Very exposed to moderately exposed upper and mid eulittoral bedrock and boulders characterised by a dense community of barnacles, including Chthamalus montagui, Chthamalus stellatus and Semibalanus balanoides, and the limpet Patella vulgata. Damp cracks and crevices in the rock provide a refuge for small individuals of the mussel Mytilus edulis and the winkles Melarhaphe neritoides and Littorina saxatilis. These crevices can also be occupied by encrusting coralline algae and the anemone Actinia equina. Black patches of the lichen Verrucaria maura may be found in this zone. There is much regional variation in the distribution and zonation of Chthamalus spp. On the west coast Chthamalus spp. dominate the upper eulittoral, often forming a distinct white band above a darker band of S. balanoides in the mid eulittoral zone. C. montagui is better adapted to resist desiccation and, therefore, extends further up the shore. On some shores, particularly in the south-west, Chthamalus spp. is the dominant barnacle throughout the eulittoral zone (A1.1121). On other shores, particularly in the south, Lichina pygmaea can form a distinct zone (A1.1122).
Situation: This unit is found below the black lichen Verrucaria maura (B3.1131 or B3.1132) on very exposed shores and above the mussel Mytilus edulis and barnacle biotope (A1.111). On slightly less exposed shores the wrack Fucus vesiculosus is able to survive and a mixed barnacle and F. vesiculosus biotope may occur (A1.1132) beneath A1.112. On such moderately exposed shores A1.112 may still occur on steep and vertical faces, while fucoids dominate the flatter areas (A1.1132 or A1.1132), though these communities should not be confused with A1.1132. This unit can also occur above A1.113. On very sheltered sea lochs in Argyll, West Scotland Chthamalus spp. are unusually abundant in the upper eulittoral zone.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Species mentioned in habitat description

Algae Fucus vesiculosus
Invertebrates Actinia equina
Invertebrates Chthamalus montagui
Invertebrates Chthamalus stellatus
Invertebrates Littorina saxatilis
Invertebrates Melarhaphe neritoides
Invertebrates Mytilus edulis
Invertebrates Patella vulgata
Invertebrates Semibalanus balanoides
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Fucus vesiculosus Algae
Actinia equina Invertebrates
Chthamalus montagui Invertebrates
Chthamalus stellatus Invertebrates
Littorina saxatilis Invertebrates
Melarhaphe neritoides Invertebrates
Mytilus edulis Invertebrates
Patella vulgata Invertebrates
Semibalanus balanoides Invertebrates

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
Marine Habitat Classification Britain/Ireland 0405 LR.HLR.MusB.Cht <I>Chthamalus</I> spp. on exposed eulittoral rock source
CORINE Land Cover 4.2.3. Intertidal flats n/a
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 A1.112 Chthamalus spp. on exposed upper eulittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 A1.112 Barnacles and Patella spp. on exposed or moderately exposed, or vertical sheltered, eulittoral rock wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 A1.112 Barnacles and Patella spp. on exposed or moderately exposed, or vertical sheltered, eulittoral rock same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 A1.112 Barnacles and Patella spp. on exposed or moderately exposed, or vertical sheltered, eulittoral rock same
MNCR BioMar 97.06 (Britain & Ireland) ELR.MB.BPat Barnacles and Patella spp. on exposed or moderately exposed, or vertical sheltered, eulittoral rock same
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