Red List habitat classification > RLF - Heathland and scrub > RLF3.1d Balkan-Anatolian submontane genistoid scrub

Balkan-Anatolian submontane genistoid scrub

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLF3.1d
Threat status
Europe Vulnerable
EU Vulnerable
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

This habitat type comprises a complex of open shrub, herbaceous and chasmophytic plant communities dominated by the species complex of Genista rumelica/Genista lydia. It is an endemic type distributed to the southeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula (Southern Bulgaria and Northern Greece) and Asia Minor. The Genista rumelica communities are more widely distributed but restricted to the Balkans (endemic), whereas the communities of Genista lydia also occur in the western part of Anatolia. These communities are found mostly in lowland areas and lower parts of mountains on unstable sites (screes, steep slopes, rocky substrates). The genistoid scrubs grow mainly on sunny, dry, stony slopes with shallow soils of various bedrock (chalk, sandstones, volcanic stones). However, Genista rumelica prefers calcareous substrata. Because of its open structure the habitat is species rich with many elements from the Thero-Brachypodietea grasslands amongst which annual grasses (Brachypodium distachyon, Poa bulbosa, Psilurus incurvus, Bromus squarrosus), perennial grasses (Koeleria splendens, Chrysopogon gryllus) and many Balkan endemics (Achillea coarctata, Dianthus pinifolius, Silene frivaldszkyana). The communities can occupy secondary, degraded areas: screes and eroded places, replacing destroyed or degraded forest, mostly of different oak species, Oriental Hornbeam or Black Pine especially in Eastern Rodopi Mts. The habitat is characterized by open and complex structure consisting of patches with annual grasslands and low (0.5-1) genistoid scrublands where the tree individuals and high shrubs are either absent or in low numbers. The more open mosaics with other habitats exhibit the highest biodiversity (plant and animal species).

Indicators of quality:

· Relatively open scrublands in mosaic with other vegetation types;

· Presence of endemic shrub and herbaceous species;

· Absence or low number of trees and high (2-3 m) shrubs.

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

The habitat type is assessed as Vulnerable (VU) in the EU28, due to a small distribution in combination with continuing (small) negative trends in quantity and quality (criterion B2). As far as known, the habitat does not occur outside the EU28 (within the Red List project region), and therefore the same categories apply for EU28+.
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Vulnerable B1
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Vulnerable B1

Confidence in the assessment

low
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Agriculture
    • Grazing
    • Intensive grazing
    • Abandonment of pastoral systems, lack of grazing
  • Sylviculture, forestry
    • Forest planting on open ground
  • Mining, extraction of materials and energy production
    • Mining and quarrying
    • Mines

Habitat restoration potential

The habitat has the capacity to recover naturally or through intervention because it is typical to open places resulting from the natural geological and geomorphological processes, as well as from the grazing activities. The habitat can also expand its distribution on certain secondary eroded terrains.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Increasing Unknown
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Stable Unknown
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

The habitat has a narrow distribution and specific ecological features; its vegetation communities are floristically characterized by regional endemic plant species and/or subspecies. However, this EUNIS habitat is not included to the Annex I of the Dir. 92/43/EEC and thus it has not been incorporated to any NATURA 2000 site. Its conservation through the legal identification of the habitat is necessary throughout its distribution range (either by inclusion of the habitat in the Annex I of the Dir. 92/43/EEC which is currently impossible or by the establishment of new Natura 2000 sites). Other conservation measures could focus a) on setting restriction rules for the construction of new quarries and mines, b) on proper management measures for forest planting, grazing activities, fires prevention, etc.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to agriculture and open habitats
    • Maintaining grasslands and other open habitats
  • Measures related to forests and wooded habitats
    • Adapt forest management
  • Measures related to spatial planning
    • Establish protected areas/sites
    • Legal protection of habitats and species

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Bulgaria Present 60 Stable Increasing
Greece (mainland and other islands) Present 20 Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 56000 36 80
EU28+ 36 80
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Conifers Juniperus oxycedrus
Flowering Plants Achillea coarctata
Flowering Plants Alyssum murale
Flowering Plants Brachypodium distachyon
Flowering Plants Bromus squarrosus
Flowering Plants Carpinus orientalis
Flowering Plants Cephalaria laevigata
Flowering Plants Chrysopogon gryllus
Flowering Plants Cleistogenes serotina
Flowering Plants Dianthus pinifolius
Flowering Plants Dichanthium ischaemum
Flowering Plants Fraxinus ornus
Flowering Plants Genista lydia
Flowering Plants Genista rumelica
Flowering Plants Koeleria splendens
Flowering Plants Melica ciliata
Flowering Plants Minuartia setacea
Flowering Plants Orlaya grandiflora
Flowering Plants Poa bulbosa
Flowering Plants Psilurus incurvus
Flowering Plants Scabiosa ochroleuca
Flowering Plants Sedum hispanicum
Flowering Plants Silene frivaldszkyana
Flowering Plants Stipa capillata
Flowering Plants Teucrium chamaedrys
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Juniperus oxycedrus Conifers
Achillea coarctata Flowering Plants
Alyssum murale Flowering Plants
Brachypodium distachyon Flowering Plants
Bromus squarrosus Flowering Plants
Carpinus orientalis Flowering Plants
Cephalaria laevigata Flowering Plants
Chrysopogon gryllus Flowering Plants
Cleistogenes serotina Flowering Plants
Dianthus pinifolius Flowering Plants
Dichanthium ischaemum Flowering Plants
Fraxinus ornus Flowering Plants
Genista lydia Flowering Plants
Genista rumelica Flowering Plants
Koeleria splendens Flowering Plants
Melica ciliata Flowering Plants
Minuartia setacea Flowering Plants
Orlaya grandiflora Flowering Plants
Poa bulbosa Flowering Plants
Psilurus incurvus Flowering Plants
Scabiosa ochroleuca Flowering Plants
Sedum hispanicum Flowering Plants
Silene frivaldszkyana Flowering Plants
Stipa capillata Flowering Plants
Teucrium chamaedrys Flowering Plants

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

This habitat may be equivalent to, or broather than, or narrower than the habitats or ecosystems in the following typologies.
Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 F3.1 Temperate thickets and scrub overlap
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