Red List habitat classification > RLF - Heathland and scrub > RLF5.3 Submediterranean pseudomaquis

Submediterranean pseudomaquis

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLF5.3
Threat status
Europe Least Concern
EU Least Concern
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

Submediterranean pseudomaquis are distributed at the southern part of Europe and especially in its eastern part. They comprise transition vegetation between Mediterranean evergreen maquis scrub and continental deciduous schibljak scrub (Mucina et al. 2014) and they are characterized by the co-occurrence of evergreen and deciduous woody species (e.g. Adamović 1906, Horvat et al. 1974). The former species are more thermophilous and tolerant to drought, while the latter are more demanding in soil moisture and nutrients, but also more frost tolerant. Pseudomaquis are distinguished mainly on the basis of their physiognomy (mixed scrub formations with evergreen and deciduous species) and they correspond to different plant communities (Bergmeier 1990), which have been classified within different orders, such as Quercetalia ilicis, Fraxino orni-Cotinetalia, Quercetalia pubescenti-petraeae and Prunetalia spinosae (Rodwell et al. 2002). However, they are usually characterized by the occurrence of the evergreen species Quercus coccifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Phillyrea latifolia and Buxus sempervirens, and the one of the deciduous species Carpinus orientalis, Ostrya carpinifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Quercus pubescens and Acer monspessulanum. Furthermore, the herb flora of pseudomaquis is usually characterized by the occurrence and high frequency and cover of deciduous forests species (e.g. species of Quercion frainetto).

In most cases, the occurrence of pseudomaquis is not considered as climax vegetation, but the result of degradation of deciduous, broadleaved forests, because of disturbances like fire, grazing and unregulated logging or clear cuttings. Although pseudomaquis are more often found on calcareous substrates, they occur also on siliceous ones. The soil, regardless the substrate, is usually rocky and of small depth. They occur in low altitudes (e.g. 100 m), but more often are found within the lower part of mountain belts (e.g. 500-800 m).

Indicators of good quality:

  • No fragmented canopy of the shrub layer;

  • Regeneration of the dominant woody species;

  • Herb layer composed mainly of species of forest habitats;

  • Absence or low cover of ruderal or light-loving species;

  • Low levels of soil compactness, absence of trampling and erosion (especially in the form of rills and gullies), high cover of litter and well developed Ah horizon.

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

The habitat is assessed as Least Concern (LC), as it is widespread and showed only small declines in quality and quantity. It is found in a large geographical range with many local appearances and the provided data and trends vary a lot between countries. The habitat presents secondary vegetation and therefore in the future further development towards forest may be expected, causing declines. No quantitative data on this process exist, however, and other pressures (like overgrazing) may cause opposite trends.
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Least Concern -

Confidence in the assessment

medium
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Agriculture
    • Intensive goat grazing
  • Sylviculture, forestry
    • Forest replanting
  • Urbanisation, residential and commercial development
    • Urbanised areas, human habitation
  • Natural System modifications
    • Fire and fire suppression
  • Natural biotic and abiotic processes (without catastrophes)
    • Species composition change (succession)
  • Climate change
    • Temperature changes (e.g. rise of temperature & extremes)

Habitat restoration potential

This habitat can recover relatively fast, if the subsoil is not destroyed or removed and connectivityis not significantly damaged; in such cases it may recover in 10 years.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

Management of the habitat should aim at the prevention of natural succession of the habitat to forest. However, no urgent conservation measures are needed if site conditions prevent a fast development of thermophilous deciduous forests. Overgrazing and fires could destroy this habitat in a relatively short period of time and thus should be avoided.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to agriculture and open habitats
    • Maintaining grasslands and other open habitats
  • Measures related to spatial planning
    • Establish protected areas/sites
    • Manage landscape features
  • Measures related to urban areas, industry, energy and transport
    • Specific management of traffic and energy transport systems

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Belgium Present 0.3 Stable Stable
Bulgaria Present unknown Decreasing Decreasing
Croatia Present unknown Stable Stable
France mainland Present 312 Stable Increasing
Greece (mainland and other islands) Present 14 Stable Stable
Italy mainland Present 128 Decreasing Decreasing
Romania Present 2100 Decreasing Decreasing
Spain mainland Present 5.5 Stable Stable
United Kingdom Present 10 Decreasing Stable
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Present 80 Stable Increasing
Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) Present 145 Stable Stable

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 4053900 1693 2569
EU28+ 1810 2797
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Conifers Juniperus communis
Conifers Juniperus oxycedrus
Flowering Plants Acer campestre
Flowering Plants Acer monspessulanum
Flowering Plants Asparagus acutifolius
Flowering Plants Brachypodium sylvaticum
Flowering Plants Buxus sempervirens
Flowering Plants Campanula trachelium
Flowering Plants Carpinus orientalis
Flowering Plants Cornus mas
Flowering Plants Cotinus coggygria
Flowering Plants Crepis fraasii
Flowering Plants Fraxinus ornus
Flowering Plants Hedera helix
Flowering Plants Helleborus cyclophyllus
Flowering Plants Lathyrus laxiflorus
Flowering Plants Ligustrum vulgare
Flowering Plants Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum
Flowering Plants Melica uniflora
Flowering Plants Ostrya carpinifolia
Flowering Plants Paliurus spina-christi
Flowering Plants Phillyrea latifolia
Flowering Plants Physospermum cornubiense
Flowering Plants Pistacia terebinthus
Flowering Plants Potentilla micrantha
Flowering Plants Quercus cerris
Flowering Plants Quercus coccifera
Flowering Plants Quercus pubescens
Flowering Plants Rosa arvensis
Flowering Plants Ruscus aculeatus
Flowering Plants Stipa bromoides
Flowering Plants Syringa vulgaris
Flowering Plants Viola alba
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Juniperus communis Conifers
Juniperus oxycedrus Conifers
Acer campestre Flowering Plants
Acer monspessulanum Flowering Plants
Asparagus acutifolius Flowering Plants
Brachypodium sylvaticum Flowering Plants
Buxus sempervirens Flowering Plants
Campanula trachelium Flowering Plants
Carpinus orientalis Flowering Plants
Cornus mas Flowering Plants
Cotinus coggygria Flowering Plants
Crepis fraasii Flowering Plants
Fraxinus ornus Flowering Plants
Hedera helix Flowering Plants
Helleborus cyclophyllus Flowering Plants
Lathyrus laxiflorus Flowering Plants
Ligustrum vulgare Flowering Plants
Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum Flowering Plants
Melica uniflora Flowering Plants
Ostrya carpinifolia Flowering Plants
Paliurus spina-christi Flowering Plants
Phillyrea latifolia Flowering Plants
Physospermum cornubiense Flowering Plants
Pistacia terebinthus Flowering Plants
Potentilla micrantha Flowering Plants
Quercus cerris Flowering Plants
Quercus coccifera Flowering Plants
Quercus pubescens Flowering Plants
Rosa arvensis Flowering Plants
Ruscus aculeatus Flowering Plants
Stipa bromoides Flowering Plants
Syringa vulgaris Flowering Plants
Viola alba Flowering Plants

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

This habitat may be equivalent to, or broather than, or narrower than the habitats or ecosystems in the following typologies.
Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 F5.3 Pseudomaquis same
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