Submarine structures made by leaking gases

Description (English)

Spectacular submarine complex structures, consisting of rocks, pavements and pillars up to 4 m high. These formations are due to the aggregation of sandstone by a carbonate cement resulting from microbial oxidation, mainly methane. The methane most likely originated from the microbial decomposition of fossil plant materials. The formations are interspersed with gas vents that intermittently release gas. These formations shelter a highly diversified ecosystem with brightly coloured species.

Source: Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats, version EUR 28 (2013)

Quick facts

EU Habitats Directive Annex I habitat type (code 1180)
EU conservation status by biogeographical region Marine Atlantic - Unknown
Marine Black Sea - Favourable
Marine Macaronesian - Unknown
Marine Mediterranean - Unknown
Habitat type Not priority
Natura 2000 sites 28 are designated for this habitat type

Distribution

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Conservation status

EU conservation status

Conservation status assesses every six years and for each biogeographical region the condition of habitats and species compared to the favourable status as described in the Habitats Directive. The map shows the 2007-2012 assessments as reported by EU Member State. Assessments are further detailed in the summary document available behind the link below.

Favourable: A habitat is in a situation where it is prospering and with good prospects to do so in the future as well
Unfavourable-Inadequate: A habitat is in a situation where a change in management or policy is required to return the habitat to favourable status but there is no danger of disappearance in the foreseeable future
Unfavourable-Bad: A habitat is in serious danger of disappearing (at least regionally)
Unknown: The information available for the habitat type is scarce and does not allow a proper assessment of its conservation status

Species mentioned in habitat description

Invertebrates Alcyonium digitatum
Invertebrates Alvania punctura
Invertebrates Cancer pagurus
Invertebrates Cliona celata
Invertebrates Metridium senile
Invertebrates Ophiothrix fragilis
Invertebrates Pomatoceros triqueter
Invertebrates Rissoa parva
Invertebrates Tealia felina
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Alcyonium digitatum Invertebrates
Alvania punctura Invertebrates
Cancer pagurus Invertebrates
Cliona celata Invertebrates
Metridium senile Invertebrates
Ophiothrix fragilis Invertebrates
Pomatoceros triqueter Invertebrates
Rissoa parva Invertebrates
Tealia felina Invertebrates

Natura 2000 sites

Protected in the following Natura 2000 sites

Sitecode Country Site name Action
DK00FX010 Denmark Strandenge på Læsø og havet syd herfor Map
DK00FX113 Denmark Hirsholmene, havet vest herfor og Ellinge Å's udløb Map
DK00FX257 Denmark Havet omkring Nordre Rønner Map
DK00VA247 Denmark Kims Top og den Kinesiske Mur Map
DK00VA248 Denmark Herthas Flak Map
DK00VA249 Denmark Læsø Trindel og Tønneberg Banke Map
DK00VA250 Denmark Store Middelgrund Map
DK00VA258 Denmark Store Rev Map
ES6120032 Spain Estrecho Oriental Map
ESZZ12002 Spain Volcanes de fango del Golfo de Cádiz Map
ESZZ16010 Spain Espacio marino del entorno de Illes Columbretes Map
FR5300023 France Archipel des Glénan Map
FR5300049 France Dunes et côtes de Trévignon Map
GR2510005 Greece THALASSIA PERIOCHI PAFSANIA – YPOTHALASSIA IFAISTEIA METHANON Map
GR4210007 Greece NOTIA NISYROS KAI STRONGYLI, IFAISTIAKO PEDIO KAI PARAKTIA THALASSIA ZONI Map
GR4220036 Greece THALASSIA PERIOCHI KOLOUMVO Map
IE0003015 Ireland Codling Fault Zone SAC Map
ROSCI0066 Romania Delta Dunării - zona marină Map
ROSCI0094 Romania Izvoarele sulfuroase submarine de la Mangalia Map
ROSCI0237 Romania Structuri submarine metanogene - Sf. Gheorghe Map
ROSCI0281 Romania Cap Aurora Map
ROSCI0311 Romania Canionul Viteaz Map
ROSCI0413 Romania Lobul sudic al Câmpului de Phyllophora al lui Zernov Map
SE0510127 Sweden Fladen Map
SE0520189 Sweden Bratten Map
UK0030354 United Kingdom Scanner Pockmark Map
UK0030357 United Kingdom Braemar Pockmarks Map
UK0030381 United Kingdom Croker Carbonate Slabs Map

Protected sites

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Relation to habitat classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 A5.711 Bubbling reefs in the sublittoral euphotic zone same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 A4.73 Vents and seeps in circalittoral rock overlap
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 A5.71 Seeps and vents in sublittoral sediments overlap
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 A3.73 Vents and seeps in infralittoral rock overlap
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