Fields of lava and natural excavations

Description (English)

Sites and products of recent volcanic activity harbouring distinct biological communities.
The following subtypes are included:
Pal. 66.1 Teide violet community. Violetea cheiranthifoliae.
Very open formation of the summit of the Teide volcano of Tenerife, above (2700) 3000 metres, with Viola cheiranthifolia and a few individuals of Silene nocteolens and Argyranthemum teneriffae.
Pal. 66.2 Etna summital communities
Communities of Mount Etna, above the limit of hedgehog heaths.
Pal. 66.3 Barren lava fields
Almost bare lava formations of other volcanoes, and of lower altitudes on Etna and Teide, colonised by, besides communities related to ones covered in other sections, lichens (e.g. Stereocaulon vesubianum) and invertebrates.
Pal. 66.4 Volcanic ash and lapilli fields
Pal. 66.5 Lava tubes
Caves formed by hollow basaltic tubes resulting from the cooling of the surface of lava flows whose molten interior continued to flow. The very large tube created by the volcano La Corona of Lanzarote harbours unique communities of invertebrates, in particular, the decapod crustacean Munidopsis polymorpha, endemic to that locality, and several crustaceans of the genus Speleonectes.
Pal. 66.6 Fumaroles
Orifices in volcanic areas through which escape hot gases and vapours. Their very extreme environment is colonised by paucispecific but highly distinct communities.

Source: Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats, version EUR 28 (2013)

Quick facts

EU Habitats Directive Annex I habitat type (code 8320)
EU conservation status by biogeographical region Macaronesian - Poor
Mediterranean - Poor
Habitat type Not priority
Natura 2000 sites 79 are designated for this habitat type


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Conservation status

EU conservation status

Conservation status assesses every six years and for each biogeographical region the condition of habitats and species compared to the favourable status as described in the Habitats Directive. The map shows the 2013-2018 assessments as reported by EU Member State. Assessments are further detailed in the summary document available behind the link below.

Good: A habitat is in a situation where it is prospering and with good prospects to do so in the future as well
Poor: A habitat is in a situation where a change in management or policy is required to return the habitat to favourable status but there is no danger of disappearance in the foreseeable future
Bad: A habitat is in serious danger of disappearing (at least regionally)
Unknown: The information available for the habitat type is scarce and does not allow a proper assessment of its conservation status
Full table details

Species mentioned in habitat description

Flowering Plants Silene nocteolens
Invertebrates Munidopsis polymorpha
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Silene nocteolens Flowering Plants
Munidopsis polymorpha Invertebrates

Natura 2000 sites

Protected in the following Natura 2000 sites

Sitecode Country Site name Action
ES0000039 Spain Jandía Map
ES0000095 Spain Tigaiga Map
ES0000096 Spain Pozo Negro Map
ES0000100 Spain La Geria Map
ES0000101 Spain Lajares, Esquinzo y costa del Jarubio Map
ES0000103 Spain El Hierro Map
ES0000104 Spain Gorreta y Salmor Map
ES0000106 Spain Teno Map
ES0000107 Spain Montes y cumbre de Tenerife Map
ES0000109 Spain Anaga Map
ES0000110 Spain Ayagaures y Pilancones Map
ES0000114 Spain Cumbres y acantilados del norte de La Palma Map
ES0000141 Spain Parque Nacional de Timanfaya Map
ES0000346 Spain Tamadaba Map
ES7010006 Spain Los Marteles Map
ES7010023 Spain Malpaís de la Arena Map
ES7010025 Spain Fataga Map
ES7010032 Spain Corralejo Map
ES7010045 Spain Archipiélago Chinijo Map
ES7010046 Spain Los Volcanes Map
ES7010047 Spain La Corona Map
ES7020003 Spain Tibataje Map
ES7020004 Spain Risco de Las Playas Map
ES7020006 Spain Timijiraque Map
ES7020010 Spain Las Nieves Map
ES7020011 Spain Cumbre Vieja Map
ES7020018 Spain Malpaís de Las Manchas y cueva de Las Palomas Map
ES7020022 Spain Tamanca Map
ES7020043 Spain Parque Nacional del Teide Map
ES7020048 Spain Malpaís de Güímar Map
ES7020052 Spain Chinyero Map
ES7020054 Spain Corona Forestal Map
ES7020069 Spain Las Lagunetas Map
ES7020073 Spain Los Acantilados de la Culata Map
ES7020095 Spain Anaga Map
ES7020099 Spain Frontera Map
ES7020100 Spain Cueva del Viento Map
IT5170102 Italy Campi di alterazione geotermica di M.Rotondo e Sasso Pisano Map
IT6030009 Italy Caldara di Manziana Map
IT8030005 Italy Corpo centrale dell'Isola di Ischia Map
IT8030032 Italy Stazioni di Cyanidium caldarium di Pozzuoli Map
IT8030034 Italy Stazione di Cyperus polystachyus di Ischia Map
IT8030036 Italy Vesuvio Map
IT8030037 Italy Vesuvio e Monte Somma Map
IT9210210 Italy Monte Vulture Map
ITA010019 Italy Isola di Pantelleria: Montagna Grande e Monte Gibele Map
ITA010020 Italy Isola di Pantelleria - Area Costiera, Falesie e Bagno dell'Acqua Map
ITA010030 Italy Isola di Pantelleria e area marina circostante Map
ITA020010 Italy Isola di Ustica Map
ITA030025 Italy Isola di Panarea e Scogli Viciniori Map
ITA030026 Italy Isole di Stromboli e Strombolicchio Map
ITA030027 Italy Isola di Vulcano Map
ITA030029 Italy Isola di Salina (Stagno di Lingua) Map
ITA030030 Italy Isola di Lipari Map
ITA030044 Italy Arcipelago delle Eolie - area marina e terrestre Map
ITA040001 Italy Isola di Linosa Map
ITA040013 Italy Arcipelago delle Pelagie - area marina e terrestre Map
ITA070008 Italy Complesso Immacolatelle, Micio Conti, boschi limitrofi Map
ITA070009 Italy Fascia altomontana dell'Etna Map
ITA070010 Italy Dammusi Map
ITA070012 Italy Pineta di Adrano e Biancavilla Map
ITA070013 Italy Pineta di Linguaglossa Map
ITA070014 Italy Monte Baracca, Contrada Giarrita Map
ITA070015 Italy Canalone del Tripodo Map
ITA070016 Italy Valle del Bove Map
ITA070017 Italy Sciare di Roccazzo della Bandiera Map
ITA070018 Italy Piano dei Grilli Map
ITA070023 Italy Monte Minardo Map
ITA070026 Italy Forre laviche del Fiume Simeto Map
PTFAI0004 Portugal Caldeira e Capelinhos - Ilha do Faial Map
PTPIC0009 Portugal Montanha do Pico, Prainha e Caveiro - Ilha do Pico Map
PTPIC0010 Portugal Ponta da Ilha - Ilha do Pico Map
PTTER0017 Portugal Serra Santa Bárbara e Pico Alto - Ilha da Terceira Map
PTZPE0023 Portugal Caldeira e Capelinhos - Ilha do Faial Map
PTZPE0025 Portugal Ponta da Ilha - Ilha do Pico Map
PTZPE0027 Portugal Zona Central do Pico - Ilha do Pico Map

Protected sites

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Relation to habitat classifications

Not available
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Phone: +45 3336 7100