Fields of lava and natural excavations

Description (English)

Sites and products of recent volcanic activity harbouring distinct biological communities.
The following subtypes are included:
Pal. 66.1 Teide violet community. Violetea cheiranthifoliae.
Very open formation of the summit of the Teide volcano of Tenerife, above (2700) 3000 metres, with Viola cheiranthifolia and a few individuals of Silene nocteolens and Argyranthemum teneriffae.
Pal. 66.2 Etna summital communities
Communities of Mount Etna, above the limit of hedgehog heaths.
Pal. 66.3 Barren lava fields
Almost bare lava formations of other volcanoes, and of lower altitudes on Etna and Teide, colonised by, besides communities related to ones covered in other sections, lichens (e.g. Stereocaulon vesubianum) and invertebrates.
Pal. 66.4 Volcanic ash and lapilli fields
Pal. 66.5 Lava tubes
Caves formed by hollow basaltic tubes resulting from the cooling of the surface of lava flows whose molten interior continued to flow. The very large tube created by the volcano La Corona of Lanzarote harbours unique communities of invertebrates, in particular, the decapod crustacean Munidopsis polymorpha, endemic to that locality, and several crustaceans of the genus Speleonectes.
Pal. 66.6 Fumaroles
Orifices in volcanic areas through which escape hot gases and vapours. Their very extreme environment is colonised by paucispecific but highly distinct communities.

Source: Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats, version EUR 28 (2013)

Quick facts

EU Habitats Directive Annex I habitat type (code 8320)
EU conservation status by biogeographical region Macaronesian - Unfavourable-Bad
Mediterranean - Favourable
Habitat type Not priority
Natura 2000 sites 144 are designated for this habitat type


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Conservation status

EU conservation status

Conservation status assesses every six years and for each biogeographical region the condition of habitats and species compared to the favourable status as described in the Habitats Directive. The map shows the 2007-2012 assessments as reported by EU Member State. Assessments are further detailed in the summary document available behind the link below.

Favourable: A habitat is in a situation where it is prospering and with good prospects to do so in the future as well
Unfavourable-Inadequate: A habitat is in a situation where a change in management or policy is required to return the habitat to favourable status but there is no danger of disappearance in the foreseeable future
Unfavourable-Bad: A habitat is in serious danger of disappearing (at least regionally)
Unknown: The information available for the habitat type is scarce and does not allow a proper assessment of its conservation status

Species mentioned in habitat description

Invertebrates Munidopsis polymorpha
Flowering Plants Silene nocteolens
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Munidopsis polymorpha Invertebrates
Silene nocteolens Flowering Plants

Natura 2000 sites

Protected in the following Natura 2000 sites

Sitecode Country Site name Action
ES0000039 Spain Jandía Map
ES0000041 Spain Ojeda, Inagua y Pajonales Map
ES0000043 Spain Caldera de Taburiente Map
ES0000044 Spain Garajonay Map
ES0000095 Spain Tigaiga Map
ES0000096 Spain Pozo Negro Map
ES0000100 Spain La Geria Map
ES0000101 Spain Lajares, Esquinzo y costa del Jarubio Map
ES0000103 Spain El Hierro Map
ES0000104 Spain Gorreta y Salmor Map
ES0000106 Spain Teno Map
ES0000107 Spain Montes y cumbre de Tenerife Map
ES0000109 Spain Anaga Map
ES0000110 Spain Ayagaures y Pilancones Map
ES0000111 Spain Tamadaba Map
ES0000113 Spain Macizo de Tauro Map
ES0000114 Spain Cumbres y acantilados del norte de La Palma Map
ES0000141 Spain Parque Nacional de Timanfaya Map
ES0000346 Spain Tamadaba Map
ES7010004 Spain Azuaje Map
ES7010005 Spain Los Tilos de Moya Map
ES7010006 Spain Los Marteles Map
ES7010008 Spain Güigüí Map
ES7010010 Spain Pilancones Map
ES7010014 Spain Cueva de Lobos Map
ES7010018 Spain Riscos de Tirajana Map
ES7010019 Spain Roque de Nublo Map
ES7010023 Spain Malpaís de la Arena Map
ES7010025 Spain Fataga Map
ES7010033 Spain Jandía Map
ES7010038 Spain Barranco de La Virgen Map
ES7010039 Spain El Nublo II Map
ES7010040 Spain Hoya del Gamonal Map
ES7010041 Spain Barranco de Guayadeque Map
ES7010045 Spain Archipiélago Chinijo Map
ES7010046 Spain Los Volcanes Map
ES7010055 Spain Amurga Map
ES7010063 Spain Nublo Map
ES7011004 Spain Macizo de Tauro II Map
ES7020001 Spain Mencáfete Map
ES7020003 Spain Tibataje Map
ES7020004 Spain Risco de Las Playas Map
ES7020006 Spain Timijiraque Map
ES7020008 Spain Pinar de Garafía Map
ES7020009 Spain Guelguén Map
ES7020010 Spain Las Nieves Map
ES7020011 Spain Cumbre Vieja Map
ES7020014 Spain Risco de la Concepción Map
ES7020015 Spain Costa de Hiscaguán Map
ES7020016 Spain Barranco del Jorado Map
ES7020018 Spain Tubo volcánico de Todoque Map
ES7020020 Spain Tablado Map
ES7020021 Spain Barranco de las Angustias Map
ES7020022 Spain Tamanca Map
ES7020024 Spain Juan Mayor Map
ES7020025 Spain Barranco del Agua Map
ES7020028 Spain Benchijigua Map
ES7020029 Spain Puntallana Map
ES7020030 Spain Majona Map
ES7020032 Spain Roque Cano Map
ES7020034 Spain La Fortaleza Map
ES7020035 Spain Barranco del Cabrito Map
ES7020037 Spain Lomo del Carretón Map
ES7020039 Spain Orone Map
ES7020043 Spain Parque Nacional del Teide Map
ES7020044 Spain Ijuana Map
ES7020045 Spain Pijaral Map
ES7020047 Spain Pinoleris Map
ES7020052 Spain Chinyero Map
ES7020053 Spain Las Palomas Map
ES7020054 Spain Corona Forestal Map
ES7020055 Spain Barranco de Fasnia y Güímar Map
ES7020068 Spain La Rambla de Castro Map
ES7020069 Spain Las Lagunetas Map
ES7020073 Spain Los Acantilados de la Culata Map
ES7020074 Spain Los Campeches, Tigaiga y Ruiz Map
ES7020075 Spain La Resbala Map
ES7020076 Spain Riscos de Bajamar Map
ES7020081 Spain Interián Map
ES7020082 Spain Barranco de Ruiz Map
ES7020084 Spain Barlovento, Garafía, El Paso y Tijarafe Map
ES7020085 Spain El Paso y Santa Cruz de La Palma Map
ES7020088 Spain Sabinar de Puntallana Map
ES7020089 Spain Sabinar de La Galga Map
ES7020091 Spain Monteverde de Gallegos-Franceses Map
ES7020092 Spain Monteverde de Lomo Grande Map
ES7020093 Spain Monteverde de Barranco Seco-Barranco del Agua Map
ES7020095 Spain Anaga Map
ES7020096 Spain Teno Map
ES7020097 Spain Teselinde-Cabecera de Vallehermoso Map
ES7020098 Spain Montaña del Cepo Map
ES7020099 Spain Frontera Map
ES7020100 Spain Cueva del Viento Map
ES7020101 Spain Laderas de Enchereda Map
ES7020102 Spain Barranco de Charco Hondo Map
ES7020105 Spain Barranco del Águila Map
ES7020106 Spain Cabecera Barranco de Aguajilva Map
ES7020107 Spain Cuenca de Benchijigua-Guarimiar Map
ES7020109 Spain Barrancos del Cedro y Liria Map
ES7020111 Spain Barranco de Orchilla Map
ES7020114 Spain Riscos de Lara Map
ES7020115 Spain Laderas de Chío Map
IT5170102 Italy Campi di alterazione geotermica di M.Rotondo e Sasso Pisano Map
IT6030009 Italy Caldara di Manziana Map
IT8030005 Italy Corpo centrale dell'Isola di Ischia Map
IT8030032 Italy Stazioni di Cyanidium caldarium di Pozzuoli Map
IT8030034 Italy Stazione di Cyperus polystachyus di Ischia Map
IT8030036 Italy Vesuvio Map
IT8030037 Italy Vesuvio e Monte Somma Map
IT9210210 Italy Monte Vulture Map
ITA010019 Italy Isola di Pantelleria: Montagna Grande e Monte Gibele Map
ITA010020 Italy Isola di Pantelleria - Area Costiera, Falesie e Bagno dell'Acqua Map
ITA010030 Italy Isola di Pantelleria e area marina circostante Map
ITA020010 Italy Isola di Ustica Map
ITA030025 Italy Isola di Panarea e Scogli Viciniori Map
ITA030026 Italy Isole di Stromboli e Strombolicchio Map
ITA030027 Italy Isola di Vulcano Map
ITA030029 Italy Isola di Salina (Stagno di Lingua) Map
ITA030030 Italy Isola di Lipari Map
ITA030044 Italy Arcipelago delle Eolie - area marina e terrestre Map
ITA040001 Italy Isola di Linosa Map
ITA040013 Italy Arcipelago delle Pelagie - area marina e terrestre Map
ITA070008 Italy Complesso Immacolatelle, Micio Conti, boschi limitrofi Map
ITA070009 Italy Fascia altomontana dell'Etna Map
ITA070010 Italy Dammusi Map
ITA070012 Italy Pineta di Adrano e Biancavilla Map
ITA070013 Italy Pineta di Linguaglossa Map
ITA070014 Italy Monte Baracca, Contrada Giarrita Map
ITA070015 Italy Canalone del Tripodo Map
ITA070016 Italy Valle del Bove Map
ITA070017 Italy Sciare di Roccazzo della Bandiera Map
ITA070018 Italy Piano dei Grilli Map
ITA070023 Italy Monte Minardo Map
ITA070026 Italy Forre laviche del Fiume Simeto Map
PTFAI0004 Portugal Caldeira e Capelinhos - Ilha do Faial Map
PTPIC0009 Portugal Montanha do Pico, Prainha e Caveiro - Ilha do Pico Map
PTPIC0010 Portugal Ponta da Ilha - Ilha do Pico Map
PTTER0017 Portugal Serra Santa Bárbara e Pico Alto - Ilha da Terceira Map
PTZPE0023 Portugal Caldeira e Capelinhos - Ilha do Faial Map
PTZPE0025 Portugal Ponta da Ilha - Ilha do Pico Map
PTZPE0027 Portugal Zona Central do Pico - Ilha do Pico Map

Protected sites

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Relation to habitat classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 H6.1 Active volcanic features wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 H6.24 Barren lava fields and flows wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 H6.22 Etna summital communities wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 H6.2 Inactive recent volcanic features wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 H6.11 Italian fumaroles wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 H1.4 Lava tubes wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 H6.14 Macaronesian fumaroles wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 H1.42 Macaronesian lava tubes wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 H6.13 Pantelleria fumaroles wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 H6.12 Sicilian fumaroles wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 H6.21 Teide violet community wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 H1.43 Tethyan lava tubes wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 H6.25 Volcanic ash and lapilli fields wider
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