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Habitat Annex I Directive hierarchical view > FORESTS > Forests of Boreal Europe > Coniferous forests on, or connected to, glaciofluvial eskers

Coniferous forests on, or connected to, glaciofluvial eskers

Description (English)

This type includes Fennoscandian conifer forests found on or close to eskers. The top of an esker is often characterized by Pinus sylvestris and the slopes sometimes by Picea abies, although deciduous species may occur. Eskers are glaciofluvial gravel and sand formations which consist of relatively sorted material, often forming ridges over 20 meters high. In terms of ecological site factors they are more variable than the surrounding forest on flatter ground. In particular the microclimate differs notably between shaded and sunny slopes. Thus aspect and slope inclination, which reflect the effects of solar radiation and soil and air temperatures are important ecological factors. As a result of ecological characteristics, vegetation on sunny esker slopes is often relatively rich in species and particularly contains many leguminous plants as well as some eastern steppe plant species.

Source: Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats, version EUR 28 (2013)

Quick facts

EU Habitats Directive Annex I habitat type (code 9060)
Habitat type Not priority
Natura 2000 sites 353 are designated for this habitat type


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Conservation status

EU conservation status

Conservation status assesses every six years and for each biogeographical region the condition of habitats and species compared to the favourable status as described in the Habitats Directive. The map shows the 2013-2018 assessments as reported by EU Member State. Assessments are further detailed in the summary document available behind the link below.

Good: A habitat is in a situation where it is prospering and with good prospects to do so in the future as well
Poor: A habitat is in a situation where a change in management or policy is required to return the habitat to favourable status but there is no danger of disappearance in the foreseeable future
Bad: A habitat is in serious danger of disappearing (at least regionally)
Unknown: The information available for the habitat type is scarce and does not allow a proper assessment of its conservation status

Species mentioned in habitat description

Conifers Juniperus communis
Conifers Pinus sylvestris
Ferns Pteridium aquilinum
Flowering Plants Astragalus alpinus
Flowering Plants Brachypodium pinnatum
Flowering Plants Calamagrostis arundinacea
Flowering Plants Carex ericetorum
Flowering Plants Dianthus arenarius
Flowering Plants Fragaria vesca
Flowering Plants Lathyrus niger
Flowering Plants Melica nutans
Flowering Plants Oxytropis campestris
Flowering Plants Polygonatum odoratum
Flowering Plants Pulsatilla patens
Flowering Plants Rubus saxatilis
Flowering Plants Silene nutans
Flowering Plants Thymus serpyllum
Flowering Plants Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Juniperus communis Conifers
Pinus sylvestris Conifers
Pteridium aquilinum Ferns
Astragalus alpinus Flowering Plants
Brachypodium pinnatum Flowering Plants
Calamagrostis arundinacea Flowering Plants
Carex ericetorum Flowering Plants
Dianthus arenarius Flowering Plants
Fragaria vesca Flowering Plants
Lathyrus niger Flowering Plants
Melica nutans Flowering Plants
Oxytropis campestris Flowering Plants
Polygonatum odoratum Flowering Plants
Pulsatilla patens Flowering Plants
Rubus saxatilis Flowering Plants
Silene nutans Flowering Plants
Thymus serpyllum Flowering Plants
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Flowering Plants

Natura 2000 sites

Protected in the following Natura 2000 sites

Sitecode Country Site name Action
EE0010106 Estonia Põhja-Kõrvemaa Map
EE0010173 Estonia Lahemaa Map
EE0020205 Estonia Ohepalu Map
EE0020301 Estonia Maidla-Iganõmme Map
EE0020318 Estonia Kurtna-Vilivere Map
EE0020325 Estonia Kõnnumaa Map
EE0020328 Estonia Linnumängu Map
EE0040202 Estonia Suursoo-Leidissoo Map
EE0040203 Estonia Marimetsa-Õmma Map
EE0040207 Estonia Karuse-Linnuse Map
EE0040212 Estonia Mustjärve raba Map
EE0040317 Estonia Kivikupitsa Map
EE0040361 Estonia Tõhela-Ermistu Map
EE0040422 Estonia Kesknõmme Map
EE0040423 Estonia Kingli Map
EE0040428 Estonia Koorunõmme Map
EE0040476 Estonia Tagamõisa Map
EE0040493 Estonia Viidumäe Map
EE0040494 Estonia Viieristi Map
EE0060107 Estonia Vulbi Map
EE0060202 Estonia Mõdriku-Roela Map
EE0060203 Estonia Neeruti Map
EE0060206 Estonia Lasila Map
EE0060207 Estonia Haavakannu Map
EE0060211 Estonia Seljamäe Map
EE0060221 Estonia Viitna Map
EE0070111 Estonia Mäetaguse Map
EE0070119 Estonia Jõuga Map
EE0080401 Estonia Otepää Map
EE0080502 Estonia Rutu Map
EE0080503 Estonia Kullamäe Map
EE0080517 Estonia Muti Map
EE0080608 Estonia Peetri jõe Map
EE0080613 Estonia Haanja Map
EE0080618 Estonia Verijärve Map
EE0080671 Estonia Karula Map
FI0100001 Finland Bölsviken-Stormossen Map
FI0100002 Finland Tapelsåsen-Lindöviken-Heimlax Map
FI0100005 Finland Tammisaaren ja Hangon saariston ja Pohjanpitäjänlahden merensuojelualue Map
FI0100031 Finland Lohjanharju ja Ojamonkangas Map
FI0100043 Finland Keräkankare ja Kylmälähde Map
FI0100056 Finland Kalkkilammi-Sääksjärvi Map
FI0100063 Finland Kallahden harju-, niitty- ja vesialueet Map
FI0100074 Finland Porvoonjoen suisto-Stensböle Map
FI0200001 Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo Map
FI0200010 Finland Hyyppärän harjualue Map
FI0200011 Finland Varesharju Map
FI0200020 Finland Myllylähde Map
FI0200022 Finland Pohjankangas Map
FI0200024 Finland Hämeenkangas Map
FI0200059 Finland Säkylänharju Map
FI0200076 Finland Pooskerin saaristo Map
FI0200086 Finland Teijon ylänkö Map
FI0200090 Finland Saaristomeri Map
FI0200111 Finland Paraisten harjusaaret Map
FI0301005 Finland Aurinkovuori Map
FI0303006 Finland Vanajaveden alue Map
FI0303013 Finland Hanhisuo-Saunasuo-Alajoki Map
FI0303016 Finland Vinjalamminharju Map
FI0303018 Finland Kyöpelinvuori-Fagerinmäki Map
FI0304003 Finland Ruskeanmullanharju Map
FI0309001 Finland Vatulanharju-Ulvaanharju Map
FI0310001 Finland Karittainmäki-Ahvenistonlampi Map
FI0310002 Finland Hattelmalanharju Map
FI0310003 Finland Ahvenistonharju-Vuorenharju Map
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FI0311002 Finland Seitseminen Map
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FI0331002 Finland Mäntänvuori Map
FI0335003 Finland Päijänne Map
FI0339008 Finland Metsola Map
FI0344001 Finland Liesjärvi Map
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FI0347001 Finland Hevospierettämänmäki Map
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FI0422001 Finland Ilkonselkä Map
FI0422005 Finland Kyläniemi Map
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FI0424001 Finland Repovesi Map
FI0424002 Finland Selänpään-, Anttilan- ja Hevosojankangas Map
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FI0500012 Finland Kuijärvi - Sonnanen Map
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FI0600087 Finland Hangassuo-Karjalaisenmäki Map
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FI0700011 Finland Kesonsuo-Palokangas-Selkäkangas-Syväysjoki Map
FI0700017 Finland Munakukkula-Niinivaara Map
FI0700018 Finland Oriveden-Pyhäselän saaristot Map
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FI0700037 Finland Lammassaari-Yppylä Map
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FI0700045 Finland Ruunaa Map
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FI0700050 Finland Viklinrimpi Map
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FI0700061 Finland Ritosärkän alueen vanhat metsät Map
FI0700075 Finland Pöllönvaara-Kruununkangas Map
FI0700076 Finland Karjalansärkkä-Seiväslamminsärkkä Map
FI0700077 Finland Jukavaara-Särkilamminvaara Map
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FI0800120 Finland Ison Koirajärven harju Map
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FI0900005 Finland Aittosuo-Leppäsuo-Uitusharju Map
FI0900011 Finland Hitonhauta-Kylmähauta-Hirvasjoki Map
FI0900012 Finland Lankamaan harjualue Map
FI0900013 Finland Hietasyrjänkangas-Sirkkaharju Map
FI0900015 Finland Jurvon alue - Jouhtisen metsä Map
FI0900017 Finland Julmatlammit-Kitukorpi Map
FI0900023 Finland Muuramenharju - Innanlahden lehto Map
FI0900045 Finland Housukosken alue Map
FI0900049 Finland Hopeaharjunkorpi Map
FI0900053 Finland Rasuanniemi Map
FI0900058 Finland Suurisuo-Sepänsuo-Paanasenneva-Teerineva Map
FI0900061 Finland Varisvuori-Louhukangas-Saukonlähde Map
FI0900069 Finland Pyhä-Häkin alue Map
FI0900070 Finland Kolima-Keitele -koskireitti Map
FI0900072 Finland Kolima Map
FI0900074 Finland Haapasuo-Syysniemi-Rutajärvi-Kivijärvi Map
FI0900085 Finland Syrjäharju Map
FI0900104 Finland Vatianjärven - Saraaveden alue Map
FI0900112 Finland Kulhanvuoren alue Map
FI0900126 Finland Kärppäjärven alue Map
FI0900128 Finland Tervaniemen alue Map
FI1000040 Finland Siiponjoki Map
FI1000058 Finland Maristonpakat Map
FI1001013 Finland Salamajärvi Map
FI1002001 Finland Tervaneva-Sivakkaneva-Pitkäkangas Map
FI1002005 Finland Lohijoen lehto Map
FI1101602 Finland Teerisuo-Hanhiharju Map
FI1101645 Finland Oulanka Map
FI1102601 Finland Muhos- ja Poikajoen alueet Map
FI1102608 Finland Rokua Map
FI1103800 Finland Seipikangas ja Seipikankaan korpi Map
FI1103816 Finland Sammalharju Map
FI1103827 Finland Litokaira Map
FI1103828 Finland Syöte Map
FI1103829 Finland Olvassuo Map
FI1105405 Finland Salmitunturi - Rääpysjärvi Map
FI1105413 Finland Kylmäluoma Map
FI1200057 Finland Pölhövaara Map
FI1200058 Finland Vorlokki Map
FI1200059 Finland Saarijärven aarnialue Map
FI1200104 Finland Oulujärven saaret ja ranta-alueet Map
FI1200214 Finland Pellinkangas Map
FI1200218 Finland Kukkosenvaaran alue Map
FI1200251 Finland Lentuan alue Map
FI1200252 Finland Iso Palonen - Maariansärkät Map
FI1200253 Finland Kokkamo - Kylmäjärvi Map
FI1200257 Finland Kellojärven ranta-alueet ja saaret Map
FI1200608 Finland Räätäkangas Map
FI1200625 Finland Hiidenportin alueet Map
FI1200715 Finland Housuvaara Map
FI1200721 Finland Sydänmaanaro Map
FI1200723 Finland Ilosenkangas - Kylmäsuo Map
FI1200724 Finland Rimpisuo Map
FI1200729 Finland Hiienvaara Map
FI1200733 Finland Iso Vaskenvaara Map
FI1200740 Finland Öllörinsärkkä Map
FI1200741 Finland Vieremänsuon alue Map
FI1200742 Finland Murhisalo Map
FI1200743 Finland Hossa Map
FI1200744 Finland Pahamaailma Map
FI1200764 Finland Jumalissärkän - Hoikansärkän alue Map
FI1201002 Finland Jämäsvaaran alue Map
FI1201012 Finland Malahvia Map
FI1300101 Finland Pallas-Ounastunturi Map
FI1300604 Finland Näätävuoma-Sotkavuoma Map
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FI1300901 Finland Pyhätunturi Map
FI1300907 Finland Kemihaaran suot Map
FI1301401 Finland Värriö Map
FI1301402 Finland Tuntsan erämaa Map
FI1301403 Finland Suksenpaistama-Miehinkävaara Map
FI1301507 Finland Sieriäisten harjulammet Map
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LV0513400 Latvia Lielie Kangari Map
LV0518500 Latvia Lielais un Pemmes purvs Map
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LV0520500 Latvia Mazie Kangari Map
LV0535200 Latvia Posolnica Map
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LV0600400 Latvia Augsdaugava Map
SE0110003 Sweden Tullgarn, ost Map
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Protected sites

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Relation to habitat classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
Nordic Vegetation Classification 1994 Pinus sylvestris - Fragaria vesca -variant overlap
Nordic Vegetation Classification 1994 Pinus sylvestris - Lathyrys spp. - Rubus saxatilis-type overlap
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