Caledonian forest

Description (English)

Relict, indigenous pine forests of Pinus sylvestris var. scotica, endemic in the central and north eastern Grampians and the northern and western Highlands of Scotland and associated Betula and Juniperus woodlands of northern character within this area. They are mostly open and have a ground layer rich in ericaceous species and bryophytes, in particular Hylocomium splendens, and often harbouring abundant Deschampsia flexuosa, Goodyera repens, Listera cordata, Corallorhiza trifida, Linnaea borealis, Trientalis europaea, Pyrola minor, Moneses uniflora, Orthilia secunda. The dominant trees are: Sorbus aucuparia, Betula pubescens, Betula pendula, Juniperus communis, Ilex aquifolium, Populus tremula.

Source: Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats, version EUR 28 (2013)

Quick facts

EU Habitats Directive Annex I habitat type (code 91C0)
EU conservation status by biogeographical region Atlantic - Unfavourable-Bad
Habitat type Priority
Natura 2000 sites 18 are designated for this habitat type

Distribution

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Conservation status

EU conservation status

Conservation status assesses every six years and for each biogeographical region the condition of habitats and species compared to the favourable status as described in the Habitats Directive. The map shows the 2007-2012 assessments as reported by EU Member State. Assessments are further detailed in the summary document available behind the link below.

Favourable: A habitat is in a situation where it is prospering and with good prospects to do so in the future as well
Unfavourable-Inadequate: A habitat is in a situation where a change in management or policy is required to return the habitat to favourable status but there is no danger of disappearance in the foreseeable future
Unfavourable-Bad: A habitat is in serious danger of disappearing (at least regionally)
Unknown: The information available for the habitat type is scarce and does not allow a proper assessment of its conservation status

Species mentioned in habitat description

Flowering Plants Betula pendula
Flowering Plants Betula pubescens
Flowering Plants Corallorhiza trifida
Flowering Plants Deschampsia flexuosa
Flowering Plants Goodyera repens
Mosses & Liverworts Hylocomium splendens
Flowering Plants Ilex aquifolium
Conifers Juniperus communis
Flowering Plants Linnaea borealis
Flowering Plants Listera cordata
Flowering Plants Moneses uniflora
Flowering Plants Orthilia secunda
Conifers Pinus sylvestris var. scotica
Mosses & Liverworts Pleurozium schreberi
Flowering Plants Populus tremula
Flowering Plants Pyrola minor
Flowering Plants Sorbus aucuparia
Flowering Plants Trientalis europaea
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Betula pendula Flowering Plants
Betula pubescens Flowering Plants
Corallorhiza trifida Flowering Plants
Deschampsia flexuosa Flowering Plants
Goodyera repens Flowering Plants
Hylocomium splendens Mosses & Liverworts
Ilex aquifolium Flowering Plants
Juniperus communis Conifers
Linnaea borealis Flowering Plants
Listera cordata Flowering Plants
Moneses uniflora Flowering Plants
Orthilia secunda Flowering Plants
Pinus sylvestris var. scotica Conifers
Pleurozium schreberi Mosses & Liverworts
Populus tremula Flowering Plants
Pyrola minor Flowering Plants
Sorbus aucuparia Flowering Plants
Trientalis europaea Flowering Plants

Natura 2000 sites

Protected in the following Natura 2000 sites

Sitecode Country Site name Action
UK0012756 United Kingdom Glen Tanar Map
UK0012758 United Kingdom Black Wood of Rannoch Map
UK0012759 United Kingdom Kinveachy Forest Map
UK0012762 United Kingdom Amat Woods Map
UK0012897 United Kingdom Beinn Dearg Map
UK0012956 United Kingdom Ben Nevis Map
UK0013091 United Kingdom Ardgour Pinewoods Map
UK0013597 United Kingdom Loch Maree Complex Map
UK0013619 United Kingdom Pitmaduthy Moss Map
UK0014729 United Kingdom Rhidorroch Woods Map
UK0014739 United Kingdom Strathglass Complex Map
UK0016412 United Kingdom Cairngorms Map
UK0019791 United Kingdom Carn nan Tri-tighearnan Map
UK0030030 United Kingdom Ballochbuie Map
UK0030122 United Kingdom Coyles of Muick Map
UK0030197 United Kingdom Lower Findhorn Woods Map
UK0030251 United Kingdom River Dee Map
UK0030259 United Kingdom River Moriston Map

Protected sites

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Relation to habitat classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 G3.41 Caledonian forest same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 G3.4 Pinus sylvestris woodland south of the taiga narrower
National Vegetation Classification (UK) W19 Juniperus communis ssp. communis-Oxalis acetosella woodland not defined
National Vegetation Classification (UK) W18 Pinus sylvestris-Hylocomium splendens woodland not defined
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