Caledonian forest

Description (English)

Relict, indigenous pine forests of Pinus sylvestris var. scotica, endemic in the central and north eastern Grampians and the northern and western Highlands of Scotland and associated Betula and Juniperus woodlands of northern character within this area. They are mostly open and have a ground layer rich in ericaceous species and bryophytes, in particular Hylocomium splendens, and often harbouring abundant Deschampsia flexuosa, Goodyera repens, Listera cordata, Corallorhiza trifida, Linnaea borealis, Trientalis europaea, Pyrola minor, Moneses uniflora, Orthilia secunda. The dominant trees are: Sorbus aucuparia, Betula pubescens, Betula pendula, Juniperus communis, Ilex aquifolium, Populus tremula.

Source: Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats, version EUR 28 (2013)

Quick facts

EU Habitats Directive Annex I habitat type (code 91C0)
EU conservation status by biogeographical region Atlantic - Bad
Habitat type Priority
Natura 2000 sites 0 are designated for this habitat type

Distribution

The distribution map is currently disabled. A new map solution will soon become available. In the meantime, please consult other species distribution map providers listed in the Other resources panel below.

Conservation status

EU conservation status

Conservation status assesses every six years and for each biogeographical region the condition of habitats and species compared to the favourable status as described in the Habitats Directive. The map shows the 2013-2018 assessments as reported by EU Member State. Assessments are further detailed in the summary document available behind the link below.

Good: A habitat is in a situation where it is prospering and with good prospects to do so in the future as well
Poor: A habitat is in a situation where a change in management or policy is required to return the habitat to favourable status but there is no danger of disappearance in the foreseeable future
Bad: A habitat is in serious danger of disappearing (at least regionally)
Unknown: The information available for the habitat type is scarce and does not allow a proper assessment of its conservation status
Full table details

Species mentioned in habitat description

Conifers Juniperus communis
Conifers Pinus sylvestris var. scotica
Flowering Plants Betula pendula
Flowering Plants Betula pubescens
Flowering Plants Corallorhiza trifida
Flowering Plants Deschampsia flexuosa
Flowering Plants Goodyera repens
Flowering Plants Ilex aquifolium
Flowering Plants Linnaea borealis
Flowering Plants Listera cordata
Flowering Plants Moneses uniflora
Flowering Plants Orthilia secunda
Flowering Plants Populus tremula
Flowering Plants Pyrola minor
Flowering Plants Sorbus aucuparia
Flowering Plants Trientalis europaea
Mosses & Liverworts Hylocomium splendens
Mosses & Liverworts Pleurozium schreberi
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Juniperus communis Conifers
Pinus sylvestris var. scotica Conifers
Betula pendula Flowering Plants
Betula pubescens Flowering Plants
Corallorhiza trifida Flowering Plants
Deschampsia flexuosa Flowering Plants
Goodyera repens Flowering Plants
Ilex aquifolium Flowering Plants
Linnaea borealis Flowering Plants
Listera cordata Flowering Plants
Moneses uniflora Flowering Plants
Orthilia secunda Flowering Plants
Populus tremula Flowering Plants
Pyrola minor Flowering Plants
Sorbus aucuparia Flowering Plants
Trientalis europaea Flowering Plants
Hylocomium splendens Mosses & Liverworts
Pleurozium schreberi Mosses & Liverworts

Natura 2000 sites

Not available

Relation to habitat classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
National Vegetation Classification (UK) W19 Juniperus communis ssp. communis-Oxalis acetosella woodland not defined
National Vegetation Classification (UK) W18 Pinus sylvestris-Hylocomium splendens woodland not defined
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100