Macaronesian laurel forests (Laurus, Ocotea)

Description (English)

Humid to hyper-humid, mist-bound, luxuriant, evergreen, lauriphyllous forests of the cloud belt of the Macaronesian islands, extremely rich in floral and faunal species, among which many are restricted to these communities (Pruno-Lauretalia). Genera such as Picconia, Semele, Gesnouinia, Lactucosonchus, Ixanthus are entirely endemic to these communities, while others, such as Isoplexis, Visnea and Phyllis, reach in them their maximum development; in addition, each of the formations of the various archipelagos harbours distinctive endemic species.
This habitat type includes:
Lauriphyllous forests of the Azores (subtype 45.61 Ericetalia azorica p.), where the humid forests of the coastal areas (Myrico-Pittosporietum undulati p.) have been totally or almost totally degraded, largely invaded by the introduced Australian Pittosporum undulatum; a better representation survives of the hyper-humid forests (Culcito-Juniperion brevifoliae p.) of higher elevations.
Lauriphyllous forests of Madeira (subtype 45.62 Pruno-Lauretalia azorica) still occupying a relatively large surface, of the order of 10,000 ha.
Lauriphyllous forests of the Canary Islands (subtype 45.63 Ixantho-Laurion azoricae); the laurel forests of each island harbour a distinctive set of endemic plants and animals, as exemplified by the species of the composite genus Pericallis, the well-marked races of the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs or the carabid fauna.

Source: Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats, version EUR 28 (2013)

Quick facts

EU Habitats Directive Annex I habitat type (code 9360)
EU conservation status by biogeographical region Macaronesian - Unfavourable-Inadequate
Habitat type Priority
Natura 2000 sites 79 are designated for this habitat type

Distribution

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Conservation status

EU conservation status

Conservation status assesses every six years and for each biogeographical region the condition of habitats and species compared to the favourable status as described in the Habitats Directive. The map shows the 2007-2012 assessments as reported by EU Member State. Assessments are further detailed in the summary document available behind the link below.

Favourable: A habitat is in a situation where it is prospering and with good prospects to do so in the future as well
Unfavourable-Inadequate: A habitat is in a situation where a change in management or policy is required to return the habitat to favourable status but there is no danger of disappearance in the foreseeable future
Unfavourable-Bad: A habitat is in serious danger of disappearing (at least regionally)
Unknown: The information available for the habitat type is scarce and does not allow a proper assessment of its conservation status
Full table details

Species mentioned in habitat description

Flowering Plants Clethra arborea
Birds Columba bollii
Birds Columba junoniae
Birds Columba trocaz
Flowering Plants Erica arborea
Flowering Plants Euphorbia stygiana
Flowering Plants Frangula azorica
Birds Fringilla coelebs
Birds Fringilla teydea polatzeki
Flowering Plants Heberdenia excelsa
Flowering Plants Hedera canariensis
Flowering Plants Ilex canariensis
Conifers Juniperus brevifolia
Flowering Plants Laurus azorica
Flowering Plants Myrica faya
Flowering Plants Ocotea foetens
Flowering Plants Persea indica
Flowering Plants Picconia azorica
Flowering Plants Picconia excelsa
Flowering Plants Pittosporum coriaceum
Flowering Plants Pittosporum undulatum
Flowering Plants Pleiomeris canariensis
Flowering Plants Prunus lusitanica
Flowering Plants Rubia peregrina
Flowering Plants Sambucus palmensis
Flowering Plants Semele androgyna
Flowering Plants Smilax aspera
Flowering Plants Smilax canariensis
Flowering Plants Smilax divaricata
Flowering Plants Vaccinium cylindraceum
Flowering Plants Visnea mocanera
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Clethra arborea Flowering Plants
Columba bollii Bolle's Laurel Pigeon Birds
Columba junoniae Laurel Pigeon Birds
Columba trocaz Long-toed Pigeon Birds
Erica arborea Flowering Plants
Euphorbia stygiana Flowering Plants
Frangula azorica Flowering Plants
Fringilla coelebs Chaffinch Birds
Fringilla teydea polatzeki Birds
Heberdenia excelsa Flowering Plants
Hedera canariensis Flowering Plants
Ilex canariensis Flowering Plants
Juniperus brevifolia Conifers
Laurus azorica Flowering Plants
Myrica faya Flowering Plants
Ocotea foetens Flowering Plants
Persea indica Flowering Plants
Picconia azorica Flowering Plants
Picconia excelsa Flowering Plants
Pittosporum coriaceum Flowering Plants
Pittosporum undulatum Flowering Plants
Pleiomeris canariensis Flowering Plants
Prunus lusitanica Flowering Plants
Rubia peregrina Flowering Plants
Sambucus palmensis Flowering Plants
Semele androgyna Flowering Plants
Smilax aspera Flowering Plants
Smilax canariensis Flowering Plants
Smilax divaricata Flowering Plants
Vaccinium cylindraceum Flowering Plants
Visnea mocanera Flowering Plants

Natura 2000 sites

Protected in the following Natura 2000 sites

Sitecode Country Site name Action
ES0000039 Spain Jandía Map
ES0000044 Spain Garajonay Map
ES0000095 Spain Tigaiga Map
ES0000103 Spain El Hierro Map
ES0000104 Spain Gorreta y Salmor Map
ES0000106 Spain Teno Map
ES0000107 Spain Montes y cumbre de Tenerife Map
ES0000109 Spain Anaga Map
ES0000111 Spain Tamadaba Map
ES0000114 Spain Cumbres y acantilados del norte de La Palma Map
ES0000346 Spain Tamadaba Map
ES7010002 Spain Barranco Oscuro Map
ES7010004 Spain Azuaje Map
ES7010005 Spain Los Tilos de Moya Map
ES7010006 Spain Los Marteles Map
ES7010033 Spain Jandía Map
ES7010038 Spain Barranco de La Virgen Map
ES7020001 Spain Mencáfete Map
ES7020003 Spain Tibataje Map
ES7020008 Spain Pinar de Garafía Map
ES7020009 Spain Guelguén Map
ES7020010 Spain Las Nieves Map
ES7020011 Spain Cumbre Vieja Map
ES7020020 Spain Tablado Map
ES7020024 Spain Juan Mayor Map
ES7020025 Spain Barranco del Agua Map
ES7020028 Spain Benchijigua Map
ES7020030 Spain Majona Map
ES7020032 Spain Roque Cano Map
ES7020033 Spain Roque Blanco Map
ES7020037 Spain Lomo del Carretón Map
ES7020044 Spain Ijuana Map
ES7020045 Spain Pijaral Map
ES7020047 Spain Pinoleris Map
ES7020051 Spain Barranco del Infierno Map
ES7020052 Spain Chinyero Map
ES7020053 Spain Las Palomas Map
ES7020054 Spain Corona Forestal Map
ES7020069 Spain Las Lagunetas Map
ES7020072 Spain Montaña de la Breña Map
ES7020073 Spain Los Acantilados de la Culata Map
ES7020074 Spain Los Campeches, Tigaiga y Ruiz Map
ES7020075 Spain La Resbala Map
ES7020081 Spain Interián Map
ES7020082 Spain Barranco de Ruiz Map
ES7020084 Spain Barlovento, Garafía, El Paso y Tijarafe Map
ES7020085 Spain El Paso y Santa Cruz de La Palma Map
ES7020086 Spain Santa Cruz de La Palma Map
ES7020087 Spain Breña Alta Map
ES7020089 Spain Sabinar de La Galga Map
ES7020090 Spain Monteverde de Don Pedro-Juan Adalid Map
ES7020091 Spain Monteverde de Gallegos-Franceses Map
ES7020092 Spain Monteverde de Lomo Grande Map
ES7020093 Spain Monteverde de Barranco Seco-Barranco del Agua Map
ES7020094 Spain Monteverde de Breña Alta Map
ES7020095 Spain Anaga Map
ES7020096 Spain Teno Map
ES7020097 Spain Teselinde-Cabecera de Vallehermoso Map
ES7020098 Spain Montaña del Cepo Map
ES7020099 Spain Frontera Map
ES7020100 Spain Cueva del Viento Map
ES7020101 Spain Laderas de Enchereda Map
ES7020106 Spain Cabecera Barranco de Aguajilva Map
ES7020109 Spain Barrancos del Cedro y Liria Map
PTFAI0004 Portugal Caldeira e Capelinhos - Ilha do Faial Map
PTFAI0006 Portugal Ponta do Varadouro - Ilha do Faial Map
PTFLO0002 Portugal Zona Central - Morro Alto - Ilha das Flores Map
PTJOR0014 Portugal Costa NE e Ponta do Topo - Ilha de S. Jorge Map
PTMAD0001 Portugal Laurissilva da Madeira Map
PTMAD0007 Portugal Pináculo Map
PTMAD0009 Portugal Paul do Mar – Jardim do Mar Map
PTMAD0010 Portugal Ribeira Brava Map
PTMAD0013 Portugal Porto Novo Map
PTMIG0024 Portugal Serra da Tronqueira / Planalto dos Graminhais Map
PTPIC0009 Portugal Montanha do Pico, Prainha e Caveiro - Ilha do Pico Map
PTTER0017 Portugal Serra Santa Bárbara e Pico Alto - Ilha da Terceira Map
PTZPE0023 Portugal Caldeira e Capelinhos - Ilha do Faial Map
PTZPE0027 Portugal Zona Central do Pico - Ilha do Pico Map
PTZPE0033 Portugal Pico da Vara / Ribeira do Guilherme - Ilha de S. Miguel Map

Protected sites

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Relation to habitat classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 G2.31 Azorean laurisilvas wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 G2.33 Canary Island laurisilvas wider
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 G2.3 Macaronesian Laurus woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 G2.32 Madeiran laurisilvas wider
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