Mountain hay meadow

Description (English)

The typical kind of traditionally-managed meadow on deep, well-drained, mesic soils throughout the mountains of Northern and Central Europe where there is a short cool growing season. There are many local types differing according to regional climate, terrain and farming traditions but the vegetation is typically dominated by mixtures of productive grasses and herbs and can be species-rich with distinctive scarce and rare plants where traditional regimes of mowing, grazing and dunging are maintained. Often once part of wider agricultural landscapes with associated pastures, good examples of the habitat now often survive more fragmentarily and transitions to silage grassland are widespread.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code R23
Relation to Resolution 4 habitat type (used for designation of Emerald sites)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Indicator species

Diagnostic species
Constant species
Dominant species
Flowering Plants Crepis mollis
Flowering Plants Meum athamanticum
Flowering Plants Poa chaixii
Flowering Plants Astrantia major
Flowering Plants Hypericum maculatum
Flowering Plants Geranium sylvaticum
Flowering Plants Phyteuma spicatum
Flowering Plants Crepis pyrenaica
Flowering Plants Trisetum flavescens
Flowering Plants Crocus vernus
Flowering Plants Phleum alpinum
Flowering Plants Trollius europaeus
Flowering Plants Alchemilla vulgaris
Flowering Plants Leucanthemum vulgare
Flowering Plants Arabidopsis halleri
Flowering Plants Pimpinella major
Flowering Plants Trifolium pratense
Flowering Plants Campanula serrata
Flowering Plants Ranunculus acris

Diagnostic species occur concentrated in the habitat in question, but are absent or rare in other habitats. They are good positive indicators of the habitat, but they do not need to occur in every location of the habitat.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Crepis mollis Flowering Plants
Meum athamanticum Flowering Plants
Poa chaixii Flowering Plants
Astrantia major Flowering Plants
Hypericum maculatum Flowering Plants
Geranium sylvaticum Flowering Plants
Phyteuma spicatum Flowering Plants
Crepis pyrenaica Flowering Plants
Trisetum flavescens Flowering Plants
Crocus vernus Flowering Plants
Phleum alpinum Flowering Plants
Trollius europaeus Flowering Plants
Alchemilla vulgaris Flowering Plants
Leucanthemum vulgare Flowering Plants
Arabidopsis halleri Flowering Plants
Pimpinella major Flowering Plants
Trifolium pratense Flowering Plants
Campanula serrata Flowering Plants
Ranunculus acris Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Festuca rubra
Flowering Plants Anthoxanthum odoratum
Flowering Plants Agrostis capillaris
Flowering Plants Geranium sylvaticum
Flowering Plants Trifolium pratense
Flowering Plants Achillea millefolium
Flowering Plants Potentilla erecta
Flowering Plants Hypericum maculatum
Flowering Plants Dactylis glomerata
Flowering Plants Rumex acetosa
Flowering Plants Ranunculus acris
Flowering Plants Leucanthemum vulgare
Flowering Plants Veronica chamaedrys
Flowering Plants Phyteuma spicatum
Flowering Plants Briza media
Flowering Plants Luzula campestris
Flowering Plants Leontodon hispidus
Flowering Plants Lotus corniculatus
Flowering Plants Plantago lanceolata
Flowering Plants Nardus stricta

Constant species occur frequently in the habitat, but they may include generalist species that are also frequent in other habitats.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Festuca rubra Flowering Plants
Anthoxanthum odoratum Flowering Plants
Agrostis capillaris Flowering Plants
Geranium sylvaticum Flowering Plants
Trifolium pratense Flowering Plants
Achillea millefolium Flowering Plants
Potentilla erecta Flowering Plants
Hypericum maculatum Flowering Plants
Dactylis glomerata Flowering Plants
Rumex acetosa Flowering Plants
Ranunculus acris Flowering Plants
Leucanthemum vulgare Flowering Plants
Veronica chamaedrys Flowering Plants
Phyteuma spicatum Flowering Plants
Briza media Flowering Plants
Luzula campestris Flowering Plants
Leontodon hispidus Flowering Plants
Lotus corniculatus Flowering Plants
Plantago lanceolata Flowering Plants
Nardus stricta Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Festuca rubra
Flowering Plants Agrostis capillaris
Flowering Plants Nardus stricta
Flowering Plants Meum athamanticum
Flowering Plants Geranium sylvaticum

Dominant species are those that often reach high cover in the habitat, thus determining the habitat physiognomy.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Festuca rubra Flowering Plants
Agrostis capillaris Flowering Plants
Nardus stricta Flowering Plants
Meum athamanticum Flowering Plants
Geranium sylvaticum Flowering Plants

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type Comment
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 E2.1 Permanent mesotrophic pastures and aftermath-grazed meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 E2.3 Mountain hay meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 E2.1 Permanent mesotrophic pastures and aftermath-grazed meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 E2.3 Mountain hay meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 E2.3 Mountain hay meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 E2.1 Permanent mesotrophic pastures and aftermath-grazed meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 E2.3 Mountain hay meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 E2.1 Permanent mesotrophic pastures and aftermath-grazed meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 E2.1 Permanent mesotrophic lowland pastures and aftermath-grazed meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 E2.3 Mountain hay meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199712 E3.3 Mountain hay meadows same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199712 E3.1 Permanent mesotrophic lowland pasture and aftermath-grazed meadow same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 199905 38.3 Mountain hay meadows same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 199905 38.1 Mesophile pastures same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1997 38.1 Mesophile pastures same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1997 38.3 Mountain hay meadows same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1996 38.1   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1996 38.3   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1993 38.1   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1993 38.3   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1991 38.3   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1991 38.1   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1989 38.3   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1989 38.1   same
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100