Ravine forest

Description (English)

Forests on steep slopes, frequently in ravines, where deep, well-drained and fertile soils develop which allow trees such as Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Fraxinus excelsior, Fraxinus ornus, Ostrya carpinifolia, Tilia cordata, Tilia platyphyllos and Ulmus glabra, to outcompete trees such as Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp. The herb layer is dominated by luxuriant nitrophilous herbs such as Aegopodium podagraria, Impatiens noli-tangere and Urtica dioica, moisture-loving vernal plants like Allium ursinum and, on base-rich soils, Brachypodium sylvaticum, Circaea lutetiana, Geranium robertianum and Mercurialis perennis. In the southern part of its distribution, thermophilous species appear, such as Arabis turrita, Cornus mas, Dioscorea communis and Ligustrum vulgare. Another group of thermophilous species (e.g. Anthericum ramosum, Cotoneaster integerrimus, Sesleria caerulea and Vincetoxicum hirundinaria) is typical of steep rocky slopes.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code T1F
Relation to Resolution 4 habitat type (used for designation of Emerald sites)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Indicator species

Diagnostic species
Constant species
Dominant species
Flowering Plants Tilia platyphyllos
Flowering Plants Acer pseudoplatanus
Flowering Plants Ulmus glabra
Flowering Plants Lamium galeobdolon
Flowering Plants Mercurialis perennis
Flowering Plants Lunaria rediviva
Flowering Plants Fraxinus excelsior
Ferns Dryopteris filix-mas
Flowering Plants Galium odoratum
Ferns Asplenium scolopendrium
Flowering Plants Actaea spicata
Flowering Plants Acer platanoides
Flowering Plants Aruncus dioicus
Ferns Polystichum aculeatum
Flowering Plants Corylus avellana
Flowering Plants Asarum europaeum
Flowering Plants Polygonatum multiflorum
Flowering Plants Geranium robertianum
Flowering Plants Fagus sylvatica
Flowering Plants Lonicera xylosteum

Diagnostic species occur concentrated in the habitat in question, but are absent or rare in other habitats. They are good positive indicators of the habitat, but they do not need to occur in every location of the habitat.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Tilia platyphyllos Flowering Plants
Acer pseudoplatanus Flowering Plants
Ulmus glabra Flowering Plants
Lamium galeobdolon Flowering Plants
Mercurialis perennis Flowering Plants
Lunaria rediviva Flowering Plants
Fraxinus excelsior Flowering Plants
Dryopteris filix-mas Ferns
Galium odoratum Flowering Plants
Asplenium scolopendrium Ferns
Actaea spicata Flowering Plants
Acer platanoides Flowering Plants
Aruncus dioicus Flowering Plants
Polystichum aculeatum Ferns
Corylus avellana Flowering Plants
Asarum europaeum Flowering Plants
Polygonatum multiflorum Flowering Plants
Geranium robertianum Flowering Plants
Fagus sylvatica Flowering Plants
Lonicera xylosteum Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Acer pseudoplatanus
Flowering Plants Fraxinus excelsior
Flowering Plants Corylus avellana
Flowering Plants Lamium galeobdolon
Ferns Dryopteris filix-mas
Flowering Plants Fagus sylvatica
Flowering Plants Mercurialis perennis
Flowering Plants Geranium robertianum
Flowering Plants Hedera helix
Flowering Plants Oxalis acetosella
Flowering Plants Galium odoratum
Flowering Plants Urtica dioica
Flowering Plants Tilia platyphyllos
Flowering Plants Ulmus glabra
Flowering Plants Sambucus nigra
Ferns Athyrium filix-femina
Flowering Plants Rubus fruticosus
Flowering Plants Senecio nemorensis
Flowering Plants Lonicera xylosteum
Flowering Plants Brachypodium sylvaticum

Constant species occur frequently in the habitat, but they may include generalist species that are also frequent in other habitats.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Acer pseudoplatanus Flowering Plants
Fraxinus excelsior Flowering Plants
Corylus avellana Flowering Plants
Lamium galeobdolon Flowering Plants
Dryopteris filix-mas Ferns
Fagus sylvatica Flowering Plants
Mercurialis perennis Flowering Plants
Geranium robertianum Flowering Plants
Hedera helix Flowering Plants
Oxalis acetosella Flowering Plants
Galium odoratum Flowering Plants
Urtica dioica Flowering Plants
Tilia platyphyllos Flowering Plants
Ulmus glabra Flowering Plants
Sambucus nigra Flowering Plants
Athyrium filix-femina Ferns
Rubus fruticosus Flowering Plants
Senecio nemorensis Flowering Plants
Lonicera xylosteum Flowering Plants
Brachypodium sylvaticum Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Acer pseudoplatanus
Flowering Plants Fraxinus excelsior
Flowering Plants Tilia platyphyllos
Flowering Plants Mercurialis perennis
Flowering Plants Corylus avellana
Flowering Plants Hedera helix
Flowering Plants Fagus sylvatica
Flowering Plants Lamium galeobdolon

Dominant species are those that often reach high cover in the habitat, thus determining the habitat physiognomy.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Acer pseudoplatanus Flowering Plants
Fraxinus excelsior Flowering Plants
Tilia platyphyllos Flowering Plants
Mercurialis perennis Flowering Plants
Corylus avellana Flowering Plants
Hedera helix Flowering Plants
Fagus sylvatica Flowering Plants
Lamium galeobdolon Flowering Plants

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 2007 (revised descriptions 2012) G1.A4 Ravine and slope woodland same
European Red List of Habitats G1.Ab Ravine woodland same
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type Comment
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 G1.A4 Ravine and slope woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 G1.A4 Ravine and slope woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 G1.A4 Ravine and slope woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 G1.A4 Ravine and slope woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 G1.B3 Calcareous and neutral mixed woodland, in ravines and on slopes same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199712 G1.H1 Calcareous and neutral mixed woodland, in ravines and on slopes same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 199905 41.4 Mixed ravine and slope forests same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1997 41.4 Mixed ravine and slope forests same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1996 41.4   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1993 41.4   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1991 41.4   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1989 41.4   same
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