Ilex aquifolium forest

Description (English)

Patches of holly (Ilex aquifolium) occurring in scattered localities across European forests, especially in the temperate zone and in the Mediterranean mountains.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code T27
Relation to Resolution 4 habitat type (used for designation of Emerald sites)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Indicator species

Diagnostic species
Constant species
Dominant species
Flowering Plants Ilex aquifolium
Mosses & Liverworts Isothecium myosuroides
Flowering Plants Lonicera periclymenum
Flowering Plants Quercus petraea

Diagnostic species occur concentrated in the habitat in question, but are absent or rare in other habitats. They are good positive indicators of the habitat, but they do not need to occur in every location of the habitat.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Ilex aquifolium Flowering Plants
Isothecium myosuroides Mosses & Liverworts
Lonicera periclymenum Flowering Plants
Quercus petraea Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Ilex aquifolium
Flowering Plants Hedera helix
Ferns Pteridium aquilinum
Flowering Plants Fagus sylvatica
Flowering Plants Lonicera periclymenum
Flowering Plants Rubus fruticosus
Flowering Plants Quercus petraea
Flowering Plants Corylus avellana
Flowering Plants Crataegus monogyna
Flowering Plants Quercus robur
Flowering Plants Sorbus aucuparia
Mosses & Liverworts Polytrichastrum formosum
Mosses & Liverworts Thuidium tamariscinum
Flowering Plants Vaccinium myrtillus
Flowering Plants Avenella flexuosa
Ferns Dryopteris dilatata
Flowering Plants Betula pubescens
Mosses & Liverworts Hypnum cupressiforme
Flowering Plants Oxalis acetosella
Flowering Plants Fraxinus excelsior

Constant species occur frequently in the habitat, but they may include generalist species that are also frequent in other habitats.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Ilex aquifolium Flowering Plants
Hedera helix Flowering Plants
Pteridium aquilinum Ferns
Fagus sylvatica Flowering Plants
Lonicera periclymenum Flowering Plants
Rubus fruticosus Flowering Plants
Quercus petraea Flowering Plants
Corylus avellana Flowering Plants
Crataegus monogyna Flowering Plants
Quercus robur Flowering Plants
Sorbus aucuparia Flowering Plants
Polytrichastrum formosum Mosses & Liverworts
Thuidium tamariscinum Mosses & Liverworts
Vaccinium myrtillus Flowering Plants
Avenella flexuosa Flowering Plants
Dryopteris dilatata Ferns
Betula pubescens Flowering Plants
Hypnum cupressiforme Mosses & Liverworts
Oxalis acetosella Flowering Plants
Fraxinus excelsior Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Ilex aquifolium
Flowering Plants Quercus petraea
Flowering Plants Fagus sylvatica
Flowering Plants Quercus robur
Flowering Plants Hedera helix
Ferns Pteridium aquilinum

Dominant species are those that often reach high cover in the habitat, thus determining the habitat physiognomy.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Ilex aquifolium Flowering Plants
Quercus petraea Flowering Plants
Fagus sylvatica Flowering Plants
Quercus robur Flowering Plants
Hedera helix Flowering Plants
Pteridium aquilinum Ferns

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 2007 (revised descriptions 2012) G2.6 Ilex aquifolium woods same
European Red List of Habitats G2.6 Ilex aquifolium woodland same
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type Comment
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 G2.6 Ilex aquifolium woods same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 G2.6 Ilex aquifolium woods same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 G2.6 Ilex aquifolium woods same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 G2.6 Ilex aquifolium woods same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 G2.6 Ilex aquifolium woods same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199712 G2.6 Holly woods same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 199905 45.8 Western Palaearctic holly woods same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1997 45.8 Western Palaearctic holly woods same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1996 45.8   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1993 45.8   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1991 45.8   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1989 45.8   same
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