EUNIS habitat classification 2017 > T - Forest and other wooded land > T3 - Coniferous forest > T31 - Temperate mountain Picea forest

Temperate mountain Picea forest

Description (English)

Evergreen coniferous forest dominated by spruce, including Picea abies in most temperate European mountain systems, relict Picea omorika in a restricted area in the Dinaric Mountains, and Picea orientalis in the Caucasus. Fir (Abies alba, Abies nordmanniana) can be admixed on acidic, even very oligotrophic, wet, cold or rocky soils in the montane and subalpine belts of the temperate mountain ranges of Europe.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code T31
Relation to Resolution 4 habitat type (used for designation of Emerald sites)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Indicator species

Diagnostic species
Constant species
Dominant species
Conifers Picea abies
Flowering Plants Oxalis acetosella
Flowering Plants Prenanthes purpurea
Conifers Abies alba
Flowering Plants Lonicera nigra
Flowering Plants Hieracium murorum
Flowering Plants Melampyrum sylvaticum
Flowering Plants Veronica urticifolia
Flowering Plants Luzula luzulina
Flowering Plants Luzula sylvatica
Flowering Plants Sorbus aucuparia
Flowering Plants Polygonatum verticillatum
Flowering Plants Homogyne alpina
Flowering Plants Calamagrostis villosa
Flowering Plants Vaccinium myrtillus
Mosses & Liverworts Polytrichastrum formosum

Diagnostic species occur concentrated in the habitat in question, but are absent or rare in other habitats. They are good positive indicators of the habitat, but they do not need to occur in every location of the habitat.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Picea abies Conifers
Oxalis acetosella Flowering Plants
Prenanthes purpurea Flowering Plants
Abies alba Conifers
Lonicera nigra Flowering Plants
Hieracium murorum Flowering Plants
Melampyrum sylvaticum Flowering Plants
Veronica urticifolia Flowering Plants
Luzula luzulina Flowering Plants
Luzula sylvatica Flowering Plants
Sorbus aucuparia Flowering Plants
Polygonatum verticillatum Flowering Plants
Homogyne alpina Flowering Plants
Calamagrostis villosa Flowering Plants
Vaccinium myrtillus Flowering Plants
Polytrichastrum formosum Mosses & Liverworts
Conifers Picea abies
Flowering Plants Vaccinium myrtillus
Flowering Plants Oxalis acetosella
Flowering Plants Sorbus aucuparia
Flowering Plants Hieracium murorum
Mosses & Liverworts Dicranum scoparium
Flowering Plants Fagus sylvatica
Conifers Abies alba
Flowering Plants Avenella flexuosa
Ferns Athyrium filix-femina
Flowering Plants Rubus idaeus
Flowering Plants Prenanthes purpurea
Mosses & Liverworts Polytrichastrum formosum
Flowering Plants Luzula sylvatica
Mosses & Liverworts Hylocomium splendens
Flowering Plants Solidago virgaurea
Flowering Plants Fragaria vesca
Flowering Plants Homogyne alpina
Ferns Dryopteris dilatata
Ferns Dryopteris filix-mas

Constant species occur frequently in the habitat, but they may include generalist species that are also frequent in other habitats.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Picea abies Conifers
Vaccinium myrtillus Flowering Plants
Oxalis acetosella Flowering Plants
Sorbus aucuparia Flowering Plants
Hieracium murorum Flowering Plants
Dicranum scoparium Mosses & Liverworts
Fagus sylvatica Flowering Plants
Abies alba Conifers
Avenella flexuosa Flowering Plants
Athyrium filix-femina Ferns
Rubus idaeus Flowering Plants
Prenanthes purpurea Flowering Plants
Polytrichastrum formosum Mosses & Liverworts
Luzula sylvatica Flowering Plants
Hylocomium splendens Mosses & Liverworts
Solidago virgaurea Flowering Plants
Fragaria vesca Flowering Plants
Homogyne alpina Flowering Plants
Dryopteris dilatata Ferns
Dryopteris filix-mas Ferns
Conifers Picea abies
Flowering Plants Vaccinium myrtillus
Flowering Plants Oxalis acetosella
Mosses & Liverworts Hylocomium splendens
Flowering Plants Calamagrostis villosa

Dominant species are those that often reach high cover in the habitat, thus determining the habitat physiognomy.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Picea abies Conifers
Vaccinium myrtillus Flowering Plants
Oxalis acetosella Flowering Plants
Hylocomium splendens Mosses & Liverworts
Calamagrostis villosa Flowering Plants

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 2007 (revised descriptions 2012) G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland narrower
European Red List of Habitats G3.1a Temperate mountain Picea woodland same
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type Comment
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 G3.1 Abies and Picea woodland same
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