EUNIS habitat classification 2017 > T - Forest and other wooded land > T3 - Coniferous forest > T39 - Mediterranean and Balkan subalpine Pinus heldreichii-Pinus peuce forest

Mediterranean and Balkan subalpine Pinus heldreichii-Pinus peuce forest

Description (English)

Evergreen coniferous forest of timberlines in the mountains of the Balkans and southern Italy, dominated by Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii) on base-rich soils in more sunny and drought-prone situations or by Macedonian pine (Pinus peuce) mostly on siliceous soils.
Remark: This habitat should be divided into two, one dominated by Pinus heldreichii and the other by Pinus peuce, because the ecology and floristic composition of these two pine forests are very different.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code T39
Relation to Resolution 4 habitat type (used for designation of Emerald sites)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Indicator species

Diagnostic species
Constant species
Dominant species
Conifers Pinus heldreichii
Conifers Pinus peuce
Flowering Plants Moehringia pendula
Flowering Plants Scabiosa cinerea
Flowering Plants Senecio thapsoides
Flowering Plants Aremonia agrimonoides
Flowering Plants Thesium auriculatum
Flowering Plants Daphne blagayana
Flowering Plants Geranium macrorrhizum
Flowering Plants Cotoneaster nebrodensis
Flowering Plants Verbascum nicolai
Flowering Plants Leucanthemum chloroticum
Flowering Plants Campanula sparsa
Flowering Plants Pulmonaria rubra
Flowering Plants Euphorbia amygdaloides
Flowering Plants Festuca penzesii

Diagnostic species occur concentrated in the habitat in question, but are absent or rare in other habitats. They are good positive indicators of the habitat, but they do not need to occur in every location of the habitat.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Pinus heldreichii Conifers
Pinus peuce Conifers
Moehringia pendula Flowering Plants
Scabiosa cinerea Flowering Plants
Senecio thapsoides Flowering Plants
Aremonia agrimonoides Flowering Plants
Thesium auriculatum Flowering Plants
Daphne blagayana Flowering Plants
Geranium macrorrhizum Flowering Plants
Cotoneaster nebrodensis Flowering Plants
Verbascum nicolai Flowering Plants
Leucanthemum chloroticum Flowering Plants
Campanula sparsa Flowering Plants
Pulmonaria rubra Flowering Plants
Euphorbia amygdaloides Flowering Plants
Festuca penzesii Flowering Plants
Conifers Pinus heldreichii
Flowering Plants Fagus sylvatica
Flowering Plants Vaccinium myrtillus
Flowering Plants Hieracium murorum
Flowering Plants Euphorbia amygdaloides
Flowering Plants Fragaria vesca
Conifers Pinus peuce
Flowering Plants Aremonia agrimonoides
Flowering Plants Lactuca muralis
Flowering Plants Poa nemoralis
Conifers Juniperus communis subsp. communis
Flowering Plants Calamagrostis arundinacea
Flowering Plants Brachypodium pinnatum
Flowering Plants Asperula aristata
Flowering Plants Veronica chamaedrys
Flowering Plants Rosa pendulina
Conifers Picea abies
Flowering Plants Luzula sylvatica
Conifers Juniperus communis subsp. nana
Flowering Plants Clinopodium alpinum

Constant species occur frequently in the habitat, but they may include generalist species that are also frequent in other habitats.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Pinus heldreichii Conifers
Fagus sylvatica Flowering Plants
Vaccinium myrtillus Flowering Plants
Hieracium murorum Flowering Plants
Euphorbia amygdaloides Flowering Plants
Fragaria vesca Flowering Plants
Pinus peuce Conifers
Aremonia agrimonoides Flowering Plants
Lactuca muralis Flowering Plants
Poa nemoralis Flowering Plants
Juniperus communis subsp. communis Conifers
Calamagrostis arundinacea Flowering Plants
Brachypodium pinnatum Flowering Plants
Asperula aristata Flowering Plants
Veronica chamaedrys Flowering Plants
Rosa pendulina Flowering Plants
Picea abies Conifers
Luzula sylvatica Flowering Plants
Juniperus communis subsp. nana Conifers
Clinopodium alpinum Flowering Plants
Conifers Pinus heldreichii
Conifers Pinus peuce
Flowering Plants Vaccinium myrtillus
Flowering Plants Calamagrostis arundinacea
Flowering Plants Festuca varia
Flowering Plants Buxus sempervirens
Flowering Plants Brachypodium sylvaticum
Flowering Plants Brachypodium pinnatum

Dominant species are those that often reach high cover in the habitat, thus determining the habitat physiognomy.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Pinus heldreichii Conifers
Pinus peuce Conifers
Vaccinium myrtillus Flowering Plants
Calamagrostis arundinacea Flowering Plants
Festuca varia Flowering Plants
Buxus sempervirens Flowering Plants
Brachypodium sylvaticum Flowering Plants
Brachypodium pinnatum Flowering Plants

Other classifications

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type Comment
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 G3.6 Subalpine mediterranean Pinus woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 G3.6 Subalpine mediterranean Pinus woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 G3.6 Subalpine mediterranean Pinus woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 G3.6 Subalpine mediterranean Pinus woodland same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 G3.6 Subalpine mediterranean Pinus woodland same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 199905 42.7 High oro-Mediterranean pine forests same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1997 42.7 High oro-Mediterranean pine forests same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1996 42.7   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1993 42.7   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1991 42.7   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1989 42.7   same
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