Temperate high-mountain base-rich inland cliff

Description (English)

Calcareous or base-rich rock faces and crevices at high altitudes of European mountain ranges in the temperate region. The chasmophytes, dwarf and cushion-like chamaephytes and hemicryptophytes, and numerous fern species and bryophytes, are very well adapted to the extreme habitat conditions, like strong solar radiation, a low water content, high day/night and seasonal temperature fluctuations, strong winds, and the absence of snow cover protection. The soil is in general very poorly developed but can accumulate in crevices. Variation in the vascular flora is high across the continent, and due to geographical isolation and variety in site conditions, numerous relict, endemic, rare and protected species can be found on these cliffs.

Source: EUNIS habitat classification

Quick facts

EUNIS habitat type code U36
Relation to Resolution 4 habitat type (used for designation of Emerald sites)

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Indicator species

Diagnostic species
Constant species
Dominant species
Flowering Plants Draba tomentosa
Flowering Plants Saxifraga squarrosa
Flowering Plants Potentilla clusiana
Flowering Plants Campanula zoysii
Flowering Plants Androsace helvetica
Flowering Plants Sesleria sphaerocephala
Flowering Plants Carex firma
Flowering Plants Saxifraga media
Flowering Plants Potentilla nitida
Flowering Plants Globularia repens
Flowering Plants Artemisia umbelliformis
Flowering Plants Primula auricula
Flowering Plants Carex mucronata
Flowering Plants Trisetum alpestre
Flowering Plants Draba stellata
Flowering Plants Phyteuma charmelii
Flowering Plants Saxifraga paniculata

Diagnostic species occur concentrated in the habitat in question, but are absent or rare in other habitats. They are good positive indicators of the habitat, but they do not need to occur in every location of the habitat.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Draba tomentosa Flowering Plants
Saxifraga squarrosa Flowering Plants
Potentilla clusiana Flowering Plants
Campanula zoysii Flowering Plants
Androsace helvetica Flowering Plants
Sesleria sphaerocephala Flowering Plants
Carex firma Flowering Plants
Saxifraga media Flowering Plants
Potentilla nitida Flowering Plants
Globularia repens Flowering Plants
Artemisia umbelliformis Flowering Plants
Primula auricula Flowering Plants
Carex mucronata Flowering Plants
Trisetum alpestre Flowering Plants
Draba stellata Flowering Plants
Phyteuma charmelii Flowering Plants
Saxifraga paniculata Flowering Plants
Flowering Plants Saxifraga paniculata
Flowering Plants Carex firma
Flowering Plants Globularia repens
Ferns Cystopteris fragilis
Flowering Plants Sesleria caerulea
Ferns Asplenium ruta-muraria
Flowering Plants Silene acaulis
Flowering Plants Saxifraga oppositifolia
Flowering Plants Primula auricula
Flowering Plants Potentilla clusiana
Flowering Plants Viola biflora
Flowering Plants Saxifraga moschata
Flowering Plants Festuca quadriflora
Flowering Plants Saxifraga squarrosa

Constant species occur frequently in the habitat, but they may include generalist species that are also frequent in other habitats.

Species scientific name English common name Species group
Saxifraga paniculata Flowering Plants
Carex firma Flowering Plants
Globularia repens Flowering Plants
Cystopteris fragilis Ferns
Sesleria caerulea Flowering Plants
Asplenium ruta-muraria Ferns
Silene acaulis Flowering Plants
Saxifraga oppositifolia Flowering Plants
Primula auricula Flowering Plants
Potentilla clusiana Flowering Plants
Viola biflora Flowering Plants
Saxifraga moschata Flowering Plants
Festuca quadriflora Flowering Plants
Saxifraga squarrosa Flowering Plants

Dominant species are those that often reach high cover in the habitat, thus determining the habitat physiognomy.

Species scientific name English common name Species group

Other classifications

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 2007 (revised descriptions 2012) H3.2 Basic and ultra-basic inland cliffs narrower
European Red List of Habitats H3.2b Temperate high-mountain base-rich inland cliff same
For relation to plant communities (syntaxa), see Vegetation types

History

Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type Comment
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410 H3.2 Basic and ultra-basic inland cliffs same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308 H3.2 Basic and ultra-basic inland cliffs same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202 H3.2 Basic and ultra-basic inland cliffs same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910 H3.2 Basic and ultra-basic inland cliffs same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199811 H3.2 Basic and ultra-basic inland cliffs same
EUNIS Habitat Classification 199712 H3.1 Calcareous inland cliffs same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 199905 62.1 Vegetated calcareous inland cliffs same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1997 62.1 Vegetated calcareous inland cliffs same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1996 62.1   same
Palaearctic Habitat Classification 1993 62.1   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1991 62.1   same
CORINE Biotopes Classification 1989 62.1   same
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