Verrucaria maura on very exposed to very sheltered upper littoral fringe rock
|EUNIS habitat type||code MA12132|
|Relation to||Resolution 4 habitat type (used for designation of Emerald sites)|
Upper littoral fringe bedrock, boulders and stable cobbles on very exposed to very sheltered shores which have a blanket covering of the black lichen Verrucaria maura. The winkle Littorina saxatilis is often present. Due to the nature of this biotope it is species poor, but occasionally a range of species may be present in low abundance. These species include the yellow lichen Caloplaca marina and the winkle Melarhaphe neritoides, the barnacles Chthamalus montagui and Semibalanus balanoides or the ephemeral seaweeds Porphyra umbilicalis and Enteromorpha spp. can be present in low abundance (see MA1-2131). If one or more of these species is present compare with MA1-2131. On northern shores Littorina saxatilis var. rudis can dominate along with the occasional presence of the lichens Verrucaria mucosa and Xanthoria parietina. V. maura can be found overlying stable mud in N. Ireland sea loughs.
Situation: The black lichen zone is normally found below the yellow and grey lichen zone (MA1-211). In very sheltered areas there is not always a clear transition from one zone to the next and a mixed zone of MA1-211 and MA1-2132 is common. The wrack Pelvetia canaliculata can occur on these more sheltered shores. With increasing wave exposure the two lichen zones become wider and more distinct, and MA1-2132 gives way to a lichen and barnacle dominated community (MA1-2131) in the lower littoral fringe.
Temporal variation: In areas with nitrate enrichment V. maura can be overgrown by the small green seaweed Prasiola stipitata (MA1-212) which reaches its maximum abundance during the winter months. It generally dies out during the summer in southern Britain, reverting the biotope to MA1-2132.
Source: EUNIS habitat classification
Relation to other habitat types mentioned in legal instruments
Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)Not available
Species mentioned in habitat description
|Species scientific name||English common name||Species group|
|Classification||Code||Habitat type name||Relationship type|
|EUNIS Habitat Classification 2007 (revised descriptions 2012)||B3.1132||Verrucaria maura on very exposed to very sheltered upper littoral fringe rock||same|
|Classification||Code||Habitat type name||Relationship type||Comment|
|EUNIS Habitat Classification 200410||B3.1132||Verrucaria maura on very exposed to very sheltered upper littoral fringe rock||same|
|EUNIS Habitat Classification 200308||B3.1133||Verrucaria maura on moderately exposed to very sheltered upper littoral fringe rock||same|
|EUNIS Habitat Classification 200202||B3.1133||Verrucaria maura on moderately exposed to very sheltered upper littoral fringe rock||same|
|EUNIS Habitat Classification 199910||B3.1133||Verrucaria maura on moderately exposed to very sheltered upper littoral fringe rock||same|
|MNCR BioMar 97.06 (Britain & Ireland)||LR.L.Ver.Ver||Verrucaria maura on moderately exposed to very sheltered upper littoral fringe rock||same|