Red List habitat classification > RLB - Coastal habitats > RLB1.6b Mediterranean and Black Sea coastal dune scrub

Mediterranean and Black Sea coastal dune scrub

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLB1.6b
Threat status
Europe Vulnerable
EU Vulnerable
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

Scrub and thicket on stabilized or semi-stabilized dune systems of the Mediterranean, thermo-Atlantic (southern Portugal) and Black Sea coasts. The dominant shrubs and herbaceous species are diverse and may vary from site to site. These scrub and thickets often constitute the transition between grey dunes and coastal woodlands. In the Mediterranean region the most widespread coastal scrub and thickets are dominated by Juniper species: Juniperus phoenicea and Juniperus oxycedrus (subsp. macrocarpa, subsp. transtagana). In the warmest areas of the thermo-Mediterranean climate, various sclerophyllous, lauriphyllous or drought-deciduous scrub and thickets are found, from the classes Ononido-Rosmarinetea, Quercetea ilicis, Cisto-Lavanduletea, Retametea raetami, Cisto-Micromerietea. These communities dominated by shrubs and thickets and vegetation cover could be very close but in some cases it could be also relatively open. On open spots, many herbaceous species from the surrounding dune grasslands are common between the shrubs. Along the Black Sea coast several deciduous shrubs may dominate, such as Paliurus spina-christii, Osyris alba and Carpinus orientalis, but also some small evergreen species, such as Ruscus aculeatus and Jasminum fruticans may participate in the scrub or form very large stands on the dunes. Dunes with communities of Hippophae rhamnoides, which are typical for north-western Europe, are restricted to northern Italy in the Mediterranean and to the Danube Delta in the Black Sea region. Some anciently cultivated plants, like Ziziphus jujuba, represent semi-natural shrub plantations in the dunes of the Southern Black Sea coast. Invasive species, like Eucalyptus sp., Amorpha fruticosa, Eleagnos angustifolia may expand with important impacts on native vegetation.

Indicators of good quality:

In good conditions these scrubs and thickets are dominated by native species. They could be subjected to the natural succession (expanding of forest vegetation), often related to stabilization of the dune systems.

The following characteristics may be considered as indicators of good quality:

  • High species richness and prevalence of native shrubs and herbaceous species
  • Absence of communities dominated by invasive species
  • Absence of forest plantations and forest expansion
  • Long-term stability of the relative proportions of scrub and grasslands in the mosaics of the dune landscape

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

The habitat type is assessed as Vulnerable under Criterion A3 both at the EU28 and the EU28+ levels, as the habitat has experienced a substantial historic reduction (since ca. 1750) of 55%.
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Vulnerable A3
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Vulnerable A3

Confidence in the assessment

medium
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Agriculture
    • Cultivation
  • Sylviculture, forestry
    • Forest and Plantation management & use
  • Urbanisation, residential and commercial development
    • Urbanised areas, human habitation
  • Invasive, other problematic species and genes
    • Invasive non-native species
  • Natural System modifications
    • Burning down

Habitat restoration potential

As the habitat is dominated by woody species such as Juniperus spp., special conservation measures are suggested. In particular, in heavily degraded areas planting Juniperus spp. using regionally collected plant material could be mentioned.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

Legal protection of habitats and species is needed. In particular, a general legislation to prevent construction of new infrastructures and land clearing at expense of this habitat should be shared by all the EU countries. Moreover, establishing new protected areas/sites and restoring strongly degraded coastal areas are also important. In these cases, specific single species (Juniperus sp.) or species group (Juniperus spp.) management measures could be highlighted.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to forests and wooded habitats
    • Restoring/Improving forest habitats
  • Measures related to wetland, freshwater and coastal habitats
    • Restoring coastal areas
  • Measures related to spatial planning
    • Establish protected areas/sites
    • Legal protection of habitats and species
  • Measures related to hunting, taking and fishing and species management
    • Specific single species or species group management measures

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Bulgaria Present Unknown Decreasing Decreasing
Croatia Uncertain Unknown Unknown Unknown
Cyprus Present 0.3 Stable Unknown
France mainland Present 42 Unknown Decreasing
Corsica Present 42 Unknown Decreasing
Greece (mainland and other islands) Present 23 Decreasing Increasing
Crete Present 23 Decreasing Increasing
East Aegean Present 23 Decreasing Increasing
Italy mainland Present 205 Decreasing Decreasing
Sardinia Present 205 Decreasing Decreasing
Sicily Present 205 Decreasing Decreasing
Portugal mainland Present 14 Decreasing Decreasing
Portugal Azores Uncertain 14 Decreasing Decreasing
Madeira Uncertain 14 Decreasing Decreasing
Savage Islands Uncertain 14 Decreasing Decreasing
Romania Present 2 Decreasing Increasing
Spain mainland Present 33 Unknown Decreasing
Balearic Islands Present 33 Unknown Decreasing
Canary Islands Present 33 Unknown Decreasing
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Albania Present Unknown Unknown Unknown
Montenegro Uncertain Unknown Unknown Unknown

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 3365550 963 320
EU28+ 967 320
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Conifers Ephedra campylopoda
Conifers Ephedra distachya
Conifers Ephedra fragilis
Conifers Juniperus navicularis
Conifers Juniperus oxycedrus
Conifers Juniperus phoenicea
Flowering Plants Amorpha fruticosa
Flowering Plants Artemisia campestris
Flowering Plants Asparagus acutifolius
Flowering Plants Asparagus aphyllus
Flowering Plants Bupleurum semicompositum
Flowering Plants Calamagrostis epigejos
Flowering Plants Carpinus orientalis
Flowering Plants Catapodium rigidum
Flowering Plants Centaurea pumilio
Flowering Plants Cistus creticus
Flowering Plants Cistus laurifolius
Flowering Plants Clematis flammula
Flowering Plants Corema album
Flowering Plants Coridothymus capitatus
Flowering Plants Dactylis glomerata
Flowering Plants Daphne sericea
Flowering Plants Erica manipuliflora
Flowering Plants Erica multiflora
Flowering Plants Erodium laciniatum
Flowering Plants Halimium halimifolium
Flowering Plants Helichrysum italicum
Flowering Plants Helichrysum stoechas
Flowering Plants Hippophae rhamnoides
Flowering Plants Jasminum fruticans
Flowering Plants Lagurus ovatus
Flowering Plants Limonium echioides
Flowering Plants Limonium graecum
Flowering Plants Limonium hyssopifolium
Flowering Plants Limonium ocymifolium
Flowering Plants Lonicera implexa
Flowering Plants Lycium schweinfurthii
Flowering Plants Melica minuta
Flowering Plants Myrtus communis
Flowering Plants Osyris alba
Flowering Plants Paliurus spina-christi
Flowering Plants Periploca graeca
Flowering Plants Phagnalon graecum
Flowering Plants Phillyrea angustifolia
Flowering Plants Pistacia lentiscus
Flowering Plants Prasium majus
Flowering Plants Pseudorlaya pumila
Flowering Plants Quercus coccifera
Flowering Plants Reichardia picroides
Flowering Plants Rhamnus alaternus
Flowering Plants Rubia peregrina
Flowering Plants Rubia tenuifolia
Flowering Plants Ruscus aculeatus
Flowering Plants Silene colorata
Flowering Plants Smilax aspera
Flowering Plants Teucrium capitatum
Flowering Plants Teucrium fruticans
Flowering Plants Trachynia distachya
Flowering Plants Tuberaria guttata
Flowering Plants Valantia hispida
Flowering Plants Vulpia fasciculata
Flowering Plants Ziziphus jujuba
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Ephedra campylopoda Conifers
Ephedra distachya Conifers
Ephedra fragilis Conifers
Juniperus navicularis Conifers
Juniperus oxycedrus Conifers
Juniperus phoenicea Conifers
Amorpha fruticosa Flowering Plants
Artemisia campestris Flowering Plants
Asparagus acutifolius Flowering Plants
Asparagus aphyllus Flowering Plants
Bupleurum semicompositum Flowering Plants
Calamagrostis epigejos Flowering Plants
Carpinus orientalis Flowering Plants
Catapodium rigidum Flowering Plants
Centaurea pumilio Flowering Plants
Cistus creticus Flowering Plants
Cistus laurifolius Flowering Plants
Clematis flammula Flowering Plants
Corema album Flowering Plants
Coridothymus capitatus Flowering Plants
Dactylis glomerata Flowering Plants
Daphne sericea Flowering Plants
Erica manipuliflora Flowering Plants
Erica multiflora Flowering Plants
Erodium laciniatum Flowering Plants
Halimium halimifolium Flowering Plants
Helichrysum italicum Flowering Plants
Helichrysum stoechas Flowering Plants
Hippophae rhamnoides Flowering Plants
Jasminum fruticans Flowering Plants
Lagurus ovatus Flowering Plants
Limonium echioides Flowering Plants
Limonium graecum Flowering Plants
Limonium hyssopifolium Flowering Plants
Limonium ocymifolium Flowering Plants
Lonicera implexa Flowering Plants
Lycium schweinfurthii Flowering Plants
Melica minuta Flowering Plants
Myrtus communis Flowering Plants
Osyris alba Flowering Plants
Paliurus spina-christi Flowering Plants
Periploca graeca Flowering Plants
Phagnalon graecum Flowering Plants
Phillyrea angustifolia Flowering Plants
Pistacia lentiscus Flowering Plants
Prasium majus Flowering Plants
Pseudorlaya pumila Flowering Plants
Quercus coccifera Flowering Plants
Reichardia picroides Flowering Plants
Rhamnus alaternus Flowering Plants
Rubia peregrina Flowering Plants
Rubia tenuifolia Flowering Plants
Ruscus aculeatus Flowering Plants
Silene colorata Flowering Plants
Smilax aspera Flowering Plants
Teucrium capitatum Flowering Plants
Teucrium fruticans Flowering Plants
Trachynia distachya Flowering Plants
Tuberaria guttata Flowering Plants
Valantia hispida Flowering Plants
Vulpia fasciculata Flowering Plants
Ziziphus jujuba Flowering Plants

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

This habitat may be equivalent to, or broather than, or narrower than the habitats or ecosystems in the following typologies.
Classification Code Habitat type name Relationship type
EUNIS Habitat Classification 200711 B1.6 Coastal dune scrub narrower
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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