Red List habitat classification > RLB - Coastal habitats > RLB1.7b Black Sea broad-leaved coastal dune woodland

Black Sea broad-leaved coastal dune woodland

Quick facts

Red List habitat type code RLB1.7b
Threat status
Europe Endangered
EU Endangered
Relation to
Source European Red List habitat factsheet
European Red List of habitats reports
European Red List of habitats (Excel table)

Summary

Natural or semi-natural tree and tree-shrub communities distributed along the Black Sea coast. The habitat has a very limited distribution in Bulgaria, where it is restricted mainly to two sites with the biggest dune systems: the Kamchia Reserve and the mouth of the Ropotamo River. Besides it is known from the Baltata Reserve. In Romania dunes with alluvial forest vegetation and many lianas are found in the maritime part of Danube’s Delta. The habitat was completely destroyed in the places of today’s Sunny Beach resort in Bulgaria. In the South-Western Black Sea coast (Ropotamo River) these woodlands occupy mostly the eastern, steep slopes on the biggest dune in Bulgaria, which is about 50 m high. The woods on the dunes have typical xerothermic features, the trees being small and strongly branched. These coenoses are dominated by Carpinus orientalis, Fraxinus ornus, Quercus cerris, Q. frainetto and Q. pubescens. The shrub layer is well developed and dominated mostly by Ruscus aculeatus, but also Cotinus coggygria, Cornus mas and the liana species Asparagus acutifolius participate in the floristic structure. The species composition of the herbaceous layer is diverse. In other areas covered by wooded dunes in Bulgaria and Romania the dunes are low (1.5-2 m) and partly covered by alluvial forest vegetation. Tree species typical for such forests are Acer campestre, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Quercus robur. Climbing species are common, like Hedera helix, Periploca graeca and Smilax excelsa. In good conditions these woodlands are dominated by native species. They are threatened by erosion and degradation. Other threats are fires, urban development, tourist pressure, and forestation with plantations of coniferous species (mostly Pinus pinaster). A main threat is the invasion of alien species, like Amorpha fruticosa, Robinia pseudacacia and Eleagnus angustifolia.

Indicators of quality:

  • High species richness

  • Prevalence of native forest, shrub and herbaceous species
  • Absence of invasive species
  • Natural structure (absence of forest plantations and forest regeneration)
  • Long-term existence of mosaics of woodland, shrubland and psammophytic grasslands on the dune systems

Characteristic species
For full habitat description, please download the habitat factsheet.

Threat status

Synthesis of Red List assessment

The habitat type is assessed as Endangered both at the EU28 and the EU28+ level, as the habitat has a very small range (EOO ≤ 20,000 km2, citerion B1) and area (AOO < 20, criterion B2) in combination with a continuing decline in spatial extent of the habitat. Due to touristic development, invasive plants and artificial forest plantations, the habitat is likely to experience a further decline in quantity and/or quality within the next 20 years.
EU
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Endangered B1, B2
Europe
Red List Category Red List Criteria
Endangered B1, B2

Confidence in the assessment

high
Red List of habitat categories and criteria descriptions

Pressures and threats

  • Sylviculture, forestry
    • Forest and Plantation management & use
    • Forest replanting
    • Grazing in forests/ woodland
  • Urbanisation, residential and commercial development
    • Urbanised areas, human habitation
    • Continuous urbanisation
    • Discontinuous urbanisation
  • Invasive, other problematic species and genes
    • Invasive non-native species
  • Geological events, natural catastrophes
    • Fire (natural)

Habitat restoration potential

The habitat has some capacity to recover naturally but it is dependent and from geoloical processes and from forest restoration. It could be restored in some areas where the artificial forest plantations have been planted or there are invasion of non typical plant species.

Trends in extent

Average current trend in quantity

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Trends in quality

Average current trend in quality

Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 EU28+

Conservation and management needs

The most important is a strict protection of preserved dune woodlands. Further projects for the restoration of some dune woodlands areas should be carried out, including the removal of non-typical forest plantations, invasive species, etc.

List of conservation and management needs

  • Measures related to forests and wooded habitats
    • Restoring/Improving forest habitats
    • Adapt forest management
  • Measures related to wetland, freshwater and coastal habitats
    • Restoring coastal areas
  • Measures related to spatial planning
    • Establish protected areas/sites
    • Legal protection of habitats and species

Distribution

For each habitat a distribution map was produced from a wide variety of sources indicating known and potential occurrences of the habitat in 10x10 km grids within Europe. Occurrences in grid cells were given in two classes: actual distribution from relatively reliable sources (surveys, expert knowledge), and potential distribution based on models or less reliable indicators. Please download the fact sheet to see the map.

Geographic occurrence and trends

EU28 Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)
Bulgaria Present 1.15 Decreasing Decreasing
Romania Present 25 Decreasing Decreasing
EU28 + Present or presence uncertain Current area of habitat (Km2) Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years) Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)

Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area

Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2) Area of Occupancy (AOO) Current estimated Total Area Comment
EU28 16350 10 26
EU28+ 10 26
AOO = the area occupied by a habitat measured in number of 10x10 km grid cells.
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).

Characteristic species

The full list of characteristic species and genus are available above from the Summary. The species available in the EUNIS database are shown here.
Conifers Pinus pinaster
Flowering Plants Acer campestre
Flowering Plants Amorpha fruticosa
Flowering Plants Asparagus acutifolius
Flowering Plants Calystegia silvatica
Flowering Plants Carpinus orientalis
Flowering Plants Cornus mas
Flowering Plants Cotinus coggygria
Flowering Plants Dactylis glomerata
Flowering Plants Fraxinus ornus
Flowering Plants Fraxinus oxycarpa
Flowering Plants Hedera helix
Flowering Plants Periploca graeca
Flowering Plants Quercus cerris
Flowering Plants Quercus robur
Flowering Plants Robinia pseudacacia
Flowering Plants Ruscus aculeatus
Flowering Plants Smilax excelsa
Species scientific name English common name Species group
Pinus pinaster Conifers
Acer campestre Flowering Plants
Amorpha fruticosa Flowering Plants
Asparagus acutifolius Flowering Plants
Calystegia silvatica Flowering Plants
Carpinus orientalis Flowering Plants
Cornus mas Flowering Plants
Cotinus coggygria Flowering Plants
Dactylis glomerata Flowering Plants
Fraxinus ornus Flowering Plants
Fraxinus oxycarpa Flowering Plants
Hedera helix Flowering Plants
Periploca graeca Flowering Plants
Quercus cerris Flowering Plants
Quercus robur Flowering Plants
Robinia pseudacacia Flowering Plants
Ruscus aculeatus Flowering Plants
Smilax excelsa Flowering Plants

Vegetation types

Relation to vegetation types (syntaxa)

Not available

Other classifications

Not available
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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