Baltic coniferous coastal dune woodland
|Red List habitat type||code RLB1.7c|
|Source||European Red List habitat factsheet|
|European Red List of habitats reports|
|European Red List of habitats (Excel table)|
Dune woods develop naturally where coastal sands become sufficiently stabilised and remote from the influence of saline ground water or spray to sustain a permanent cover of trees and they bear a strong resemblance to the zonal woodland types of the regional climate. On the Baltic coast of Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Poland, Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia, where the climate is Boreal to the north and east, Continental to the south-west, dune woods persist locally, though often reduced in quality now by replanting with introduced conifers. Pinus sylvestris is the natural coloniser and dominant and the overall character is similar to G3.4/5a Temperate Continental Pinus sylvestris woodland.
Associated trees and shrubs include Quercus robur to the south, with Betula pendula, Juniperus communis. Often there is a heathy field layer with Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Calluna vulgaris, Empetrum nigrum, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Deschampsia flexuosa and such distinctive boreal plants as Moneses uniflora, Linnaea borealis, Chimaphia umbellata and Pyrola rotundifolia. More locally, on calcareous sands, the flora can be basiphilous and, in more open stands, have a distinctively grassy look with Festuca ovina, Hieracium pilosella, Peucedanum oreoselinum, Phleum phleoides, Thymus serpylllum. On more recently colonised sands, dune species such as Ammophila arenaria, Leymus arenarius and Carex arenaria can persist among the trees. In Poland a variety of the habitat is found in wet depressions, with Ledum palustre dominating the field layer.
Indicators of quality:
- Presence of mature canopy of Pinus sylvestris with associated woody and herb species.
- Absence of planted Pinus sylvestris or other commercial conifers with loss of associated native flora.
- Infrequent burial of trees by storm-blown sands and forest fires.
- Absence of logging.
- Absence of human disturbance due to tourism or military activity.
Synthesis of Red List assessment
|Red List Category||Red List Criteria|
|Red List Category||Red List Criteria|
Confidence in the assessment
Pressures and threats
- Sylviculture, forestry
- Forest replanting (non native trees)
- Forestry clearance
- Urbanisation, residential and commercial development
- Continuous urbanisation
- Human intrusions and disturbances
- Trampling, overuse
- Invasive, other problematic species and genes
- Invasive non-native species
Habitat restoration potential
Trends in extent
Average current trend in quantity
Trends in quality
Average current trend in quality
Conservation and management needs
List of conservation and management needs
- Measures related to forests and wooded habitats
- Restoring/Improving forest habitats
- Measures related to spatial planning
- Establish protected areas/sites
Geographic occurrence and trends
|EU28||Present or presence uncertain||Current area of habitat (Km2)||Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years)||Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)|
|EU28 +||Present or presence uncertain||Current area of habitat (Km2)||Recent trend in quantity (last 50 years)||Recent trend in quality (last 50 years)|
Extent of Occurrence, Area of Occupancy and habitat area
|Extent of Occurrence (EOO) (Km2)||Area of Occupancy (AOO)||Current estimated Total Area||Comment|
EOO = the area (km2) of the envelope around all occurrences of a habitat (calculated by a minimum convex polygon).
|Species scientific name||English common name||Species group|
|Ammophila arenaria||Flowering Plants|
|Arctostaphylos uva-ursi||Flowering Plants|
|Betula pendula||Flowering Plants|
|Calluna vulgaris||Flowering Plants|
|Carex arenaria||Flowering Plants|
|Chimaphila umbellata||Flowering Plants|
|Deschampsia flexuosa||Flowering Plants|
|Empetrum nigrum||Flowering Plants|
|Festuca ovina||Flowering Plants|
|Hieracium pilosella||Flowering Plants|
|Ledum palustre||Flowering Plants|
|Leymus arenarius||Flowering Plants|
|Linnaea borealis||Flowering Plants|
|Melampyrum pratense||Flowering Plants|
|Moneses uniflora||Flowering Plants|
|Peucedanum oreoselinum||Flowering Plants|
|Phleum phleoides||Flowering Plants|
|Pyrola rotundifolia||Flowering Plants|
|Quercus robur||Flowering Plants|
|Vaccinium myrtillus||Flowering Plants|
|Leucobryum glaucum||Mosses & Liverworts|